From the south to the north of our country, the apple tree is a favorite fruit crop. People have been engaged in its cultivation since ancient times, and therefore there are more than 10,000 new, recently known, new or imported varieties of apples! They differ in size, shape, taste of fruits: from bitter, fresh, sour to very sweet, because everyone can choose what he likes.
Apples come in: summerthat is, early, usually in July, they ripen, they are badly laid, the shelf life is about three weeks, in which they should be eaten or processed.
Apples autumn categories begin to be collected in September, they can be stored until the middle of winter. Harvest late, or winter, finally ripens in late fall. The apples of this category are distinguished by good keeping quality and winter hardiness.
It is curious that both autumn and winter varieties of apples during storage can ripen. We will consider the best and most popular in each of the categories a list with illustrations, so that it is possible to determine and know the name of the fetus from the photo.
Early apple varieties
North SynapseNorth Synapse
The Northern Sinap came from the Crimea, although it now grows in the northeastern regions of Russia. Occurs from Chinese variety Kandil.
Is different good winter hardiness and keeping quality, fruits can be stored until May-June, so it is very popular. Skoroplodny, gives a stable, plentiful crop of very tasty apples.
For good ripening of fruits requires a lot of summer heat, therefore in regions with short and rather cold summers, apples simply will not ripen. Harvest is worth finally ripe, since unripe fruits will not have characteristic taste, and during storage they can wither, but not ripen. But at the ripe fruit as good taste as possible after two or three months of bed.
Medium resistance to fungal diseases and drought. Suitable for fresh consumption, processing into juice, compote and jam, as well as for the manufacture of dried fruits.
Known skoroplodny Melba variety, who came from Canada. Melba bears fruit for literally 3 years. They grow this apple almost everywhere in Russia, with the exception of the Far East, the Urals and the northeast of Siberia.
Is different high yield. Melbaby flesh is snowy, smooth skin. The fruits are not small, sweet-sour, with a pleasant candy flavor. Melba apples are well transported and, with proper storage, lie until November, immature - until January, without losing attractiveness and taste, which distinguishes the variety from other summer ones.
Crop harvested late summer and early autumn. Melba badly withstands frost, infected with scab, mature trees do not regularly fruit. But she is not afraid of a dry hot summer.
On the basis of the Melba apple tree, more than 20 new species were bred.
Late winter, student harvest September and the first half of October. Differs in especially early term of fructification: apples appear in the second year. The variety is popular in central Russia.
The fruits are not too large, but have an attractive appearance, have a pleasant, sweet-sour taste. Apple tree tolerates frost quite well, resistant to scab. Fruits have good keeping quality, easy to save until May. Ripen long, the crop is removed in October.
Types of late apple trees
Apple variety Idared - tall tree. Fruiting begins at 5-6 year after planting. The apples are rather large, green with a yellow or red blush, pleasant taste, the flesh is thick and juicy.
Harvest clean at the end of September, and apples lie before the beginning of spring. The variety is resistant to brown spot, but is affected by powdery mildew and scab. Use fresh, making juice and compotes, as well as dried fruit.
Variety beginning to bear fruit 5 years after planting. The advantage of Bogatyr is the ability to grow it in almost any climate zone.
The fruits have a pleasant sweet-sour taste, firm and strong, juicy. Until the harvest, the apples remain light green in color, yellow when stored, and a blush may appear. Resistant to scab, frost-resistant, well transported and stably well fruited. Harvesting going on in September, with proper storage of apples lie until the end of spring.
The unique Macintosh variety is from Canada. Fruits are whitish yellow or green with purple or bearded stripes.
Fruiting begins 6-7 years after planting. Crop harvested late September - early Octoberafter which it lasts 2-3 weeks and only after that it is considered ripe.
Apples moderately sweet, rich taste. Possesses average keeping quality, fruits are stored until the beginning of spring and at full ripeness the flesh becomes slightly transparent. Winter hardiness and scab resistance are average.
In most regions of Russia, summer is not long, and therefore summer apples are sometimes not a frequent treat. Apple trees of this category ripen early and begin to bear fruit.
Breeders today have brought many varieties of apple trees that can be grown in regions that were previously considered unsuitable for their growth.
Summer species of apples, as a rule juicy, sweet and very tasty. Their biggest drawback is poor keeping quality. They are used fresh, make juices and canned. Consider the best of them.
White fillingWhite filling
Popular, common, vintage grade. Fruits of the White pouring noble ivory, from which the name originated. The apple tree is white, pouring medium height, the adult tree grows up to 5 meters high, the crown is pyramidal.
White filling is winter hardy, but it is highly vulnerable to wood pests, therefore it requires regular treatments. Have a sweet and sour taste. Crop harvested in August.
Apples deteriorate quickly, especially when they hit or fall, because stored for a very short time. Therefore it is more correct to eat them immediately or to process them. You should not allow over-ripening of the fruit, as in this case, the taste qualities are noticeably worse, the pulp becomes mealy and almost tasteless.
Another well-known variety, which is often confused with white bulk. But this is not entirely correct. As relatives, they still have differences. Homeland apple Papirovka is the Baltic States. Fruiting begins early, 5 years after planting.
Tolerates frostsbut unstable to scab, traces of which can be seen both on the foliage and on the apples themselves. The crop ripens one week earlier than white filling. The papacy of the papacy is white, coarse-grained, contains an elevated level of ascorbic acid, because the taste of apples is refreshingly sour. It resists pests and diseases fairly well, but suffers from droughts and frosts.
Fruits papirovaniya poorly transported and layThey are stored for about three weeks and rot quickly if damaged. If you want to save them for a while, you need to harvest the crop unripe. Also well suited for processing and preservation.
A variety of apples, obtained by the Michurin method of white filling and boxing. Candy Apple trees are characterized by rapid development and growth, they start to bear fruit for 5 years and have a powerful sprawling crown.
They unpretentious, winter-hardyThat is a definite plus for many Russian regions. Pruning trees contributes to an increase in yield, as well as the ability to form a bush from a tree. Due to frost resistance, it is possible to grow even in Siberia.
Fruits ripen in the middle of August, from one tree you can harvest up to 50 kg. Fruits are smooth, with a sweet taste and excellent presentation. Apples have a good keeping quality, can be stored for up to two months.
Grushivka MoskovskayaGrushivka Moskovskaya
Apple tree can withstand temperatures down to -50therefore, it can be grown in many Russian regions, even in the Urals and in Siberia. It is one of the most cold-resistant. Fruiting begin already at 5 years after planting, the crop matures July-August, but fruit is not massive. Apples inside the crown and at the top ripen at different times, which significantly complicates the harvest.
The flesh of the apples is juicy, but after harvesting it quickly becomes powdery. Fruit poorly tolerated transportation and practically not stored. When rainy weather is susceptible to scab, and during drought, the tree can even lose fruit.
Moscow pear is not very suitable for preservation, because the taste of apples is sour, which will require large sugars. But at the same time they contain a lot of vitamins B and C, therefore it is better to use them fresh.
It has Canadian roots, derived by the method of natural pollination of a Moscow pear. The apples are rounded oblong, slightly ribbed at the top, bright. The taste of Manteta is very sweet, with almost no presence of sourness, the flesh is white and fragrant.
Ripen from the end of July until the end of August. Fruits early, but the fruits are stored no more than two weeks. Trees are prone to scab, do not tolerate frost.
Summer stripedSummer striped
As the name implies, the color of the fruit is striped, which is its distinguishing feature from other varieties. Apple tree is quite unpretentious in the care, is immune to scab, frost resistant. When grown in almost any conditions, you can get a high yield of tasty, juicy, fragrant apples with delicate pulp.
Fruits are stored poorly, overripe and not harvested in time harvest just showered from the tree. Suitable for fresh consumption, jam and compotes.
Quinti bred about 30 years ago in Canada, from where he came to us. Created specifically for regions with relatively low average annual temperatures. Fruit ripening occurs early, crops are harvested from mid july.
The fruits of apple trees are small, with a persistent bright aroma and a sweet-sour taste. Despite the early ripening of the crop, resistance to powdery mildew, drought and heat, which are the undoubted advantages of the variety, the fruits are stored very little time, only about two weeks. Apple quinti not hardy and affected by scab.
Autumn apple varieties
Autumn apples are most suitable for all types of conservation. Consider the best and most popular ones.
Autumn stripedAutumn striped
The variety is considered one of the best in its category. High yielding, different average winter hardiness, the planted tree begins to bear fruit for 7-8 years. Ripening in the second half of September, the fruits remain on the tree for a long time, without falling off. Stored until mid-December.
Fruits are medium in size, with a blurry blush, with creamy pulp of pleasant taste.
A popular and long-known variety of apples. It differs in that abundant crops start to give quite late, after 14-15 years. Highly resistant long-lived variety, tolerates prolonged severe frosts.
Fruits with cream-colored pulp, high palatability and cinnamon flavor, which gave this name. Harvesting going on in September, the laying time is up to two months. Apples are well suited for urinating and jam. In rainy weather, the variety is susceptible to scab.
Consumer maturity, that is, the time when autumn apples can be eaten, comes after 2-3 weeks of bed.
Winter hardy unpretentious Borovinka grade with regular fruiting.
Fruits ripen in early September, and can lie until November. The apple tree begins to bear fruit from 4 years after planting, the fruits are juicy, yellowish, of average taste. Despite the high tolerance of low temperatures, the wood has a fragile wood, a nondescript taste of the apples themselves. Fruits and leaves are prone to scab.
Memory IsaevMemory Isaev
Variety Memory Isaev possessing extremely high winter hardiness, high yield. Harvesting going on late autumn, and the collected fruits are stored until January.
Apples have a sweet and sour taste, have not pronounced aroma, with dense, juicy and tender flesh. Resistant to scab.
Glory to the winnersGlory to the winners
Matures September-October, the harvest is quite large fruits stored up to three months.
Apples Glory to the winners of sweet and sour taste, juicy and very tender. Fruiting begins early, already at 4 years old, good disease resistance and winter hardiness.
High yields frost-tolerant grade. Large fruits with a pleasant sweet-sour taste ripen in early September.
Apple varieties with late ripening are called winter ones. Winter apples are valuable because you can eat them for a whole year. The best varieties of this category possess such good keeping quality.
Winter apples are difficult to eat immediately after harvest, since their ripening usually occurs during storage. Crop harvested from mid-autumn, and the fruits lie until May-June.
Fruits ripen in the first half of October, stored until April-May. Trees of large size, crops are abundant, up to 240 kg. The tree is powerful, scab and resists moderate frost. It therefore requires special attention in the winter, and also requires regular spraying.
The fruits are quite large, with excellent taste. Stored until May, suitable for both raw consumption and for all processing methods.
Well-known and popular variety. It has quite a few species: white, ribbed, gray, striped, and so on. All of them have high, but not regular yield. Cold resistant and tolerate other climatic troubles.
Antonovka fruits have a characteristic aroma of high intensity, sweet and sour taste, juicy and crispy flesh.
Harvest is filmed in the first decade of October. Depending on the method of storage, there are apples of this variety: in the refrigerator - until December, in the basement - until December. Eat fresh, and also processed into jam, marmalade and marshmallow, make compotes and juices.
Renet SimirenkoRenet Simirenko
Apple trees varieties Rennet Simirenko resistant to drought, strong wind. Trees grow very high with medium and large fruits of green color of different shades. A distinctive sign is the formation of a brown shade on the fruit.
Possess very high keeping quality, stored until summer. The harvest of juicy fruits with a spicy, slightly salient wine, sweet taste is removed in September-October. Suitable mainly for fresh consumption.
A variety that can tolerate the coldest winters. Highly frost resistant.
When ripe, the fruits become red, have a pleasant tangible aroma, juicy and sweet. It is not uncommon for apples to have a wax coating, which helps to increase the keeping quality of the fruit.
Harvest comes at end of September-beginning of OctoberI, and apples can be stored almost until the end of spring. You can eat them after 2 months of laying, when they mature completely.
Sinap (Kandil) OrlovskySinap Orlovsky
Trees are quite large in size, with large, almost identical in size fruits. Apples are green with a blush, sweet with a slight sourness. Crop harvested at the end of September, are apples until spring.
Anis ScarletAnis Scarlet
Bred in the Volga region, because tolerates both extreme cold and drought. Anis scarlet begins to bear fruit quite late, for 6-7 years after planting, bringing abundant yields.
Harvesting going on In November, keeping quality is limited to two months. An unpretentious apple tree, but when the weather is too wet, the fruits and leaves become infected with scab.
The sweetest and tasty fruits and their names
Adults and especially children love to enjoy a delicious, sweet apple. The most famous in this category is white filling and candy, which we talked about earlier. In addition to them, there are still popular varieties of this category.
Belarusian sweetBelarusian sweet
Winter hardy skoroplodny type. Due to its large size, the tree is able to withstand quite large fruits. Apples are sweet, with very fragrant, but not too dense pulp.
Harvest is filmed in early October, and the fruits lie until the end of February. Possessing excellent taste data and presentation, besides it is resistant to scab.
Medium-grown tree skozlo-sweet fruits of round shape of a small size. Light blush apples are characterized by excellent aroma, sweet dessert flavor without the presence of sourness.
Arcade yellowArcade yellow
Good resistance to adverse environmental factors. Is different high frost resistance.
The fruits are small, cylinder-like, yellow in color, with a very sweet taste and a pleasant aroma. Yield is average.
Summer winter hardy grade. Fruits of medium and large size are sweet, with a slight sourness and honey flavor. Maturation occurs in late August and lasts for a month.
It is grown in central Russia, Belarus and the Baltic States. Summer ripening, tolerates freezing.
The yield is average, and the tree begins to bear fruit rather late. Fruits are small in size, very fragrant, with a honey-sweet taste. Foliage and apples themselves are resistant to scab. Ripen late July-early August. However, keeping quality is low, stored for a month.
A variety with uneven ripening, crop is removed in the second half of August. The taste of apples improves after a short maturation, becoming even more sweet and honey. Tastes are preserved for a long time without changes.
Green, with a sour taste, green apples are considered most beneficial to health and diets. Among them is the most popular variety renet simirenko, as well as paping, Antonovka and white filling, described above, and others.
Granny smithGranny smith
Probably the most popular winter variety of green apples, which is difficult to confuse with others due to the bright, brilliant green color and hard peel. Launched in Australia. The taste of the fruit is very juicy with a pleasant sourness, considered dietary due to the low sugar content.
Late-ripening by the end of autumn. The fruits are large and do not have flavorwhat is their feature. Well tolerated transportation and able to be stored for a long time. Frost resistant, with regular abundant fruiting. However, with a lack of heat and light, the fruits become shallow and turn yellow.
Sort Pepin Saffron does not have good frost resistance and freezes during severe cold, although it recovers well after a good time. For regular fruiting requires regular pruning, the first yields bring after 5-7 years after planting.
Apples are sweet, with an interesting grape and spicy flavor, with a bright aroma. Possess good keeping quality, from the moment of collecting in October beautifully stored until March, while maintaining their taste.
Golden DeliciousGolden delishes
Despite the yellowish color, the variety still belongs to this category. Apple tree tolerates frostsbut drought resistance is low.
Dense, very juicy fruits with sweet taste are collected. From september, and stored until March. The bed has a positive effect on taste, making it even more tender.
Beautiful, bright apples will decorate any table and seem especially tasty. The best varieties in the category are the following.
French variety, resistant to scab. Large, slightly flattened apples ripen in October. Fruiting begins at 6 year, but good harvests are harvested only at 8-10.
The quality of the fruit is very high: sweet, juicy, with signs of sourness, when lying, they become even sweeter. Well transported and stored until March. Frost and drought resistance medium.
Gloucester YorkGloucester York
Variety with large, bright red fruits of beautiful shape. Excellent taste, appearance, but resistance to scab average. The tree begins to bear fruit 5 years after planting, but yields significant yields only by 10 years.
Skoroplodny grade, the first harvests can be removed already in 3-4 years. Do it need at the end of September, and the fruits lie until the end of winter, with proper storage until April.
The apples are rich, bright red in color, with dense skin, sweet, with a slight iron aftertaste, juicy and crunchy. Well transported, resistant to mechanical damage, but during storage are affected by bitter spot. By scab resistance does not have, but frost resistance average.
The late winter variety comes from America. It is also known to gardeners under other names: winter pond, winter red, oslamov. You need to grow on wet soils, only with this condition you can get good yields. The tree is resistant to scab and powdery mildew.
Fruits with a pleasant, sour with sweet taste and bright aroma are removed in mid-September. Well tolerated transportation and storage, lies until the middle of spring.
The variety originated from the Macintosh, and therefore has its properties: rich red color, great taste. The variety is distinguished by annual fruiting with a noticeable increase in yield, the first can be removed already after 3-4 years.
Tolerates frost and resistant to drought, but moderately resistant to disease.
The best varieties of apples for the Moscow region and the middle band
The Moscow region has an unstable climate, short summers and a lack of light. Because the varieties that are best for growing should be hardy, unpretentious and frost-resistant.
Among the summer varieties are suitable: pear Moscow, medunitsa, candy, cinnamon striped, as mentioned above. As well as autumn varieties of apples.
The first fruits of Zhigulevskiy are removed for 5-6 years after planting, the harvest is abundant, but decreases with age.
Characteristic varieties are very large fruits. But it is better to plant in the southern regions, as the variety does not tolerate frosts and weakly resists scab. Matures in September, and the apples are up to two months.
Cinnamon newBrown new
Another autumn variety of apples, suitable for cultivation in the suburbs. The first crop is removed rather late after planting, closer to 6-7 years. At first, trees bear fruit regularly, over the years, the yield increases, but becomes irregular.
The fruits are small, juicy, fragrant, with bright spots collected in mid-SeptemberThey are stored for about three months. Winter hardyPest resistant variety.
Variety of average winter hardinessbut good resistance to scab and various pests. It begins to fructify at the earliest - after 5 years of cultivation, the harvest of light striped fruits is collected in the fall and stored for about six months.
Moscow winterMoscow winter
Good, frost resistant variety Uslada with excellent resistance to pests and various diseases.
After 5-7 years, you can take a good harvest, apples are large, sweet and sour, green in color with a bright blush. Ripen September-October, when properly stored, lie down until April.
Semi-dwarf autumn variety, fruits well since 3 years of growth. A fast-growing, high-yielding apple tree with medium-sized red fruits. Because of the thickened crown, the size of apples is different, their taste is sweet and sour. Especially valuable for immunity to scab and good frost resistance.
By the third year of cultivation, you can shoot good yields of sweet and sour apples. Frost resistant and scab, loves feeding, but you need to fight with aphids.
Dwarf tree, yellow fruit in the second half of August, stored for a month.Wonderful
The described apple varieties are considered the best, because they are very popular and popular with many gardeners. By planting summer, autumn and winter varieties together, you can enjoy delicious fruits all year round.