Onions - vegetable culture, without which no family can do. According to statistics, every adult person in Russia consumes about 7 kg of onions during the year. For an experienced summer resident, planting onions in the spring on the head is not a difficult task, but for beginners it is useful to learn the technology of planting.
What varieties can be sown in cold weather and can be grown at a cottage in the Moscow region, the Leningrad region and Belarus, we will tell in the article.
What does it mean planting onions on the head
Onion - a two-year culture. To get a large head that can be used to prepare first, second courses and add to salads, you need to have sevok. You can plant this culture seedling way, but not all varieties are suitable for this option.
Suitable for growing from seed varieties:
- Danilovsky 301.
- Annual Siberian.
Consider the traditional option - sowing onion seeding on the head.
Where to get sevka bulbs to plant in the open field
Option two. The first, the easiest - buy sevok in the garden shop, on the market or order in the online store. The second is to plant and grow sevok independently from Chernushka.
For large heads, the size of the set is important. Optimum size for spring planting 14-21 mm.For spring planting, the ideal size is 14-21 mm.
- no arrow;
- easier to get accustomed;
- by the end of July, gives large onions.
Sevok need not only grow, but also properly stored during the winter. Optimum storage conditions: humidity 70%, temperature 15 degrees.
Buy sevok need in the spring. Rate it visually and touch with your hands. Onions should be dry, elastic, without mechanical damage and rot. High-quality seed has a good onion smell.
Signs of poor quality Set:
- It smells like mold.
- There are white roots.
- Green sprouts hatch.
- Bulbs of different sizes from the smallest (8-14 mm) to large (30 mm).
Advantages and disadvantages of the method
With self-growing seedlings, you can get heads for food only in the second year. But at the same time it is easier to choose the seeds of the variety you like and get your seed of good quality.
The quality of the seed material offered by specialty stores often leaves much to be desired and the choice of varieties is usually limited.
What varieties can be planted
Centurion F1 - early ripe hybrid resistant to bolting. Forms elongated bulbs of medium size, covered with yellow husk. The quality is good. The harvest in the garden is stable, high.
Stuttgarten Riesen - mid-season fruitful variety of German selection. From 1 square. m, you can get up to 5 kg of large bulbs beautiful, round, slightly flattened shape. The average weight is about 150 g, large specimens can weigh 200-250 g. The color of the husk is golden yellow, the pulp is white. The flesh is moderately spicy, juicy. The period of occurrence of commodity maturity 95 days. The stability of the heads of Stuttgart Riesen is good.
Red baron - early, red variety. The ripening period is 90 (95) days. Productivity - 3 kg / m². The maturation of the variety is good. Husk and pulp red. Variety resistant to bolting. The variety is popular for its ability to be stored for a long time during the winter, good semi-sharp taste.
- Centurion F1
- Stuttgarten Riesen
- Red baron
How to prepare the site for landing in the spring
In the fall, you can begin to prepare a place for planting in open ground. The plots where cucumbers, tomatoes and cabbage were grown in the summer will do. Loves nutrient-rich chernozem or loamy soils with normal acidity.
Proper preparation of the beds
The success of the harvest depends on the soil in which it is supposed to sow onions. Over the summer, it is exhausted; it is possible to restore its fertility with the help of mineral and organic fertilizers. As organic, you can use compost, cooked alone, or humus.
Norms of autumn fertilization on 1 square. m ridge:
- 0.5 buckets of humus (compost);
- 30 g of superphosphate;
- 15 g of potassium chloride.
Ridge to dig on bayonet spade. Lumps do not break. Such treatment is the prevention of pests and diseases. The earth will be frozen deeper. Fewer pest larvae survive to spring. When melting snow moisture lasts longer in the soil.For the prevention of disease, the ground must be dug up on the spade bayonet
In the spring, scatter the ammonium nitrate over the surface of the ridge and gently loosen the soil, followed by harrowing. Norm saltpeter per square. m - 20 g
Spring month before planting onions to sort out. Divide into fractions. Smaller bulbs are planted earlier. The largest bow sets are the last to reduce the likelihood of arrows.
Before planting, seed need to be processed - to pickle. But before it is heated for 2-3 weeks. You can warm up in the sun by placing a box with onions on a window sill, or near a heating radiator.
Before planting, prepare an aqueous solution of manganese. Water should be at room temperature. Immerse the enumerated seed in the solution and incubate for 15 minutes. Slightly dry the treated seed and begin planting.Before planting, sevok is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate
For what distance and depth to plant
The technique of landing on the head is simple. On the prepared ridge make the grooves separated from each other. on 20 cm. Fill the furrows with water, pour a small amount of sifted ash.
Arrange the bulbs in the grooves. Follow the scheme:
- When planting large bulbs distance 10 cm.
- Medium - 8 cm.
- Small - 6 cm.
The bulbs fall asleep with a layer of earth or humus. Depth layer thickness no more than 2 cm. The shoots will appear much later with a greater penetration of the onion set.
For large heads need a little. Choose the right grade, prepare the ground for planting. When choosing a place to observe crop rotation. Following these simple rules, even a novice gardener will not be left without a crop.