Previously, the cultivation of southern crops - melons in Siberia and the Moscow region was considered possible only in greenhouse conditions. The zoning of varieties, the practice of gardeners and the improvement of the agrotechnology of the plant now make it possible to harvest in the open ground.
Features of the regions and selection of varieties
Melon is a heat-loving plant requiring high air and soil temperatures. The culture develops well and bears fruit in the temperature range of + 17 ° C-35 ° C. Outside this optimum, the plant experiences stress, slows down in growth, and at a temperature of + 1 ° C - dies.
These cultural features are taken into account for cultivation in the open field in unusual climatic conditions. In the Moscow region, Siberia and the Urals, melons are grown only by seedlings, selected zoned and cold-resistant varieties.
SiberiaChoose a site for planting, protected from the wind
Outdoor melon is grown in the horticultural regions of the West Siberian and East Siberian regions. These regions are defined as areas of high risk and limited fruit growing.
The climate is sharply continental, characterized by inconstancy. There is no exact definition of the frost-free period. When growing melons, they are guided by average temperatures of the last 3-4 years.
Under these conditions, early ripening varieties develop well and mature:
- A dream of sybarite;
- Little girl;
- Early 133.
In other regions of Siberia, the culture is not grown.
In the Ural region, the duration of the frost-free period is 105-204 days. The main disadvantage for growing melons is the predominance of low summer temperatures, a large variation in the average duration of the frost-free period.
therefore it is possible to grow only regionalized cultivarsproven in practice:
- A dream of sybarite;
- Canary honey;
- Delano F1;
- Collective farmer.
When choosing another variety, take into account the ripening period, it should be no more than 90 days.
Moscow regionFruits melon collective farmers
The Moscow region belongs to the central horticultural region, which is characterized by relatively favorable conditions for the cultivation of melons.
The climate is consistentthat allows you to accurately determine the duration of the frost-free period: 120-135 days.
The best varieties for the region:
- Collective farmer;
- Scythian gold;
The ideal fruit ripening rate for this region is 60-90 days.
In the suburbs seeds are sown for seedlings from April 15 to April 20, in the Urals and in Siberia in late April and early May. With good development, seedlings begin to plant in the soil 30-37 days after sowing. Longer development of the plant in the home will lead to overgrowing, weakening and reducing yields.
Seeds for the first planting are best purchased from reputable manufacturers. This seed guarantees compliance with varietal characteristics, is fully prepared for sowing: hardened and neutralized from disease.
Melon does not tolerate the transplant, often if the roots are damaged. Therefore, seedlings are grown in peat pots or cassettes with a diameter of at least 10 cm.
For soil mixture in a bucket (10 l) mix:
- peat and river sand 9: 1;
- wood ash 200 g;
- humus, turf ground 100 g;
- handful of sawdust.
2-3 seeds are sown in one container to a depth of 5 cm. The surface of the soil mixture is covered with plastic wrap or glass, which is removed after germination.
The pots are placed in a lighted and warm place. The required temperature is + 20 ° - + 25 ° during the day and at least + 15 ° C at night. In case of poor lighting, seedlings are lit up with phytolamps.
A week after the emergence of seedlings, excess plants are removed, leaving the strongest in pots. After the appearance of three true leaves of the seedlings pinch.
Seedlings watered with warm water as the earthen lump dries. A week before planting in the ground, the plants are fed. For this, 10 l of water is consumed: ammonium sulphate (16 g), superphosphate (5 g) and potassium salt (5 g).
In the same period I harden my seedlingst. For this, the plants are taken out daily, starting at 15 minutes and gradually increasing the time. On the last day before planting, seedlings are left in the fresh air for the whole day.
Planting seedlings in open groundPlanting melon seedlings for grafting
Bed for melon prepared in the spring. To do this, select the site warmed by the sun and protected from the north-east winds. After harvesting, they dig up the plot and add 5 kg per 1m2 of rotted manure or peat. Loamy soil is structured by river sand of 5 kg per 1m2.
In the spring, after thawing of the soil, the bed is harrowed and mineral fertilizers are applied per 1 m2:
- superphosphate 40 g;
- potassium salt 20 g;
- nitrogen 15 g (3 days before transplanting).
Before transplanting seedlings from the greenhouse, the ground should warm up to t + 15 ° С. It depends on the average spring temperature. Mainly in the Moscow region the soil warms up in the third decade of May, and in Siberia and the Urals in the first decade of June.
Plants are planted under the scheme 70Х70 in the holes prepared in advance and spilled with water. Peat pots are tightly laid with soil and watered. The root collar is left flush with the ground surface. Seedlings pritenyut paper or mowed grass, which are cleaned in 2 days.
Melon summer careFeeding melons in the soil, manure and bird droppings
Aisle loosen as the formation of a crust. In the first two times to a depth of 15 cm, followed by 8 cm, and the circle at the root collar is superficial. After the formation of lateral lashes plants spud.
When moistening the root neck and melon leaves, fungal diseases may develop. Therefore, at a distance of 3-5 cm from the stem form a shallow irrigation groove. Watering is carried out with warm distilled water with a t of at least 20 ° C, the flow rate per plant is 5-7 l.
Watering mode melon depends on the stage of development. After planting seedlings in dry weather, water every day. When plants take root, water once a week, and in very hot weather twice a week. During fruit ripening, watering is reduced to once per 10-15 days.
The first time the plants are fed 15 days after planting. For this purpose, solutions of mullein 1:10 or ammonium nitrate (20 g per 10 l) are used.
Subsequent feeding is carried out at intervals of 7-14 days with a solution of 10 liters:
- superphosphate 50 g;
- potassium salt 30 g;
- ammonium sulfate 30 g
Use and ready fertilizers: Master, Terrafleks, Kemira hydro. Fertilizers are applied only after abundant watering with a flow rate of 1-1.5 liters per plant.
To increase the supply of nutrients to the fruit, the plant form. It accelerates ripening, increases the sweetness and quality of the fruit.
On the main stem only male flowers are formed that do not bear fruit. Therefore, in the phase of formation of the fruits of its growth is stopped, - pinch over 3.4 or 5 leaf. Pinch and strongly overgrown side scourge, cut off non-fruiting shoots and excess ovary.
Depending on the variety, the melon begins to ripen in the third decade of July. To determine the ripeness of the fruit, gently press the bark. Mature melon bark slightly pressed through when pressed. Fruits removed as ripening.With the harvest!
The last collection is carried out before the frost. Fruits that do not have time to ripen, placed on a shelf in one row of the stem upward or in wooden boxes, shifting chips. In such conditions, they ripen in 1-2 weeks.
Despite the detailed agrotechnology, it is always important to focus on the weather in summer. Moderate dryness and heat - the basic conditions for obtaining a good harvest. Prolonged rains and cold snaps are detrimental to the melon. It is necessary to prepare a covering material in advance.