Beans are among the top ten most useful vegetables, so when choosing crops for growing in their garden, it always has a place. In order for the time and money spent to be rewarded with a generous harvest, it is necessary to become familiar with the basic rules of agricultural engineering, planting and care during cultivation in open ground.
When can be harvested in open field
Planting beans plan on May month. Should focus on the weather conditions and the correct temperature in the soil, which is indicated by 12-15 degrees (at a depth of 10 cm). According to the folk calendar, this period coincides with the flowering of chestnuts.
First you need to plant upright varieties, and after a week you can start climbing species. Shrub species bean plan to plant at the beginning of July. This can be done on the beds from which harvests of early ripe vegetables have already been harvested.
Experienced gardeners perform planting work in several stages: from mid-May to early July with an interval of at least 10 days.Spray bean varieties need to be sown in the soil in early July
Is the frost bean afraid?
Beans are heat-loving culture, so the landing is better to do in spring in the second half of maywhen the threat of frost has passed. Young shoots are afraid even of cold winds, which is why many gardeners find its place under the apple trees or along the fence.
The minimum temperature that can sustain bean seedlings does not exceed the mark -3-4 degrees. If the frosts were short, the beans will survive, but their development will be slowed down and yield will be reduced.
Agrotextiles or films used for construction will help to change the situation. temporary shelter.
The most popular varieties for planting
Variety of varieties complicates the selection. If difficulties arise in determining the range, it is recommended to give preference to proven varieties that are adapted to the climate and weather conditions of the region.
The best varieties for the Moscow region, Ukraine and Belarus
Moscow white green hand 556Moscow white green hand 556
Plant mid early the ripening period, from sowing to harvest, passes 100 days. The bush is only 25 cm tall, the fruit has a parchment layer, but very thin. The culture is unpretentious, resistant to wet environments and droughts.
Curly variety mid early ripening. The ovoid bean has an ocher color with a pale purple pattern. A fruit without a parchment layer and fibers, which makes the structure soft and soft. The plant is tolerant to anthracnose, gray rot.
For the Urals and the middle band
She R - early maturity ripened beans 80-90 daysrecommended to plant in the country in central Russia. The height of the bushes from 35 to 56 cm, the fruits have high taste.
Harvesting begins through 65-85 days after seed germination. Curly bush reaches a height of 3 m, and therefore needs support.
Marble-pink beans do not contain a parchment layer and fibers, which gives them a delicate structure. On the fruits are visible purple streaks and strokes. The application is universal, in any form of beans retains a unique taste.
Culture is different high yield and nutritional qualities of the fruit. The length of the pods is about 30 cm, the beans are large. Cold resistance and strong immunity make it possible to cultivate and grow a plant in Siberia.
Peculiarity: whips with beautiful fiery red flowers can be used as a decorative hedge.
Oil kingOil king
Shrub species of beans with a period of aging 1.5 months. Gentle and pleasant taste of tubular fruits will not leave indifferent any gourmet. The length of the string part is about 25 cm. The application of the harvest is universal: harvesting in a dry form, freezing, canning.
Planting rules and farming practices in open field
Soak first in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for about 20 minutes. After the procedure, the beans are washed with clean water and again need to be soaked in wood ash infusion for 2 hours.
On the night before sowing, pea beans are wrapped in a damp napkin for germination at home. And 5 minutes before sowing into the soil they are immersed in a solution of boric acid. This will protect the plant from diseases and pests.
Soil preparation and sowing site selection
For planting culture is selected well lit place, but without drafts and strong wind blowing, planting through seedlings is practically not used. The type of soil does not play a big role, but experienced gardeners have noted that the hardest bean develops, can germinate poorly and bear fruit on clay soils. This is due to poor permeability of moisture, because of which the seeds and roots rot.
In general, the preparatory process of forming the beds is to digging the ground to the depth of the spade. At the same time, fertilizers are injected: 4 kg of humus or compost, 2 tbsp, is added per m2. l Dolomite flour, 1 tbsp. l ammonium nitrate and 2 tbsp. l superphosphate.When preparing the ground you need to dig it to the depth of the spade bayonet
Another option for enriching the soil with nutrients involves the use of ½ compost (humus), 30 grams. superphosphate, 20 gr. wood ash per 1 m2.
In determining the place for planting beans, take into account those crops that were grown on it last season.
Scheme and depth of landing
Bush varieties of crops planted according to the scheme:
- depth of laying seeds - somewhere 5-6 cm;
- the distance between the holes in the row - 20-25 cm;
- interrow - 40 cm.
Curly varieties are planted a little differently:
- depth of laying seeds - 5-6 cm;
- the interval between the holes in the row - 25-30 cm;
- interrow - 45-50 cm.
5-6 seeds are immersed in each well. After forming, one seedling on the seedlings should be left with only 3 seedlings, the rest should be removed or carefully transplanted.
According to lunar calendar for 2018 It is recommended to plant beans:
- March - 20-23 numbers;
- April - the numbers 6-9, 19, 20, 23-26;
- May - 7-10, 19-24 numbers;
- June - 4-7 numbers.
Departure after disembarkation
Unpretentious beans do not require much attention, but they still need the basic rules of agricultural technology.
Sprouting bean seeds
Bean seeds begin to sprout later 7-10 days after disembarkation. If the temperature of the air and soil is below the recommended values, the first shoots will sprout after 5-7 days.
You can speed up the germination process if you dunk the seed in growth stimulants houses. Also contributes to this shelter beds film.
Young shoots need to be tucked up to give them stability.
Irrigation rules and conditions
The plant loves water, so you should not break the watering regime. It is especially important to moisten the soil during the period of pod formation.
The rate of water on the bush is determined by eye Once a week, the main thing is not to let the soil dry. The best irrigation fluid is rainfall. Experienced gardeners use distilled water, the temperature of which not below 18 degrees.Beans like water, so you should not allow the soil to dry
What dressings to use on the bed
The culture is responsive to fertilizer. After preparing the soil for planting will need to make at least 3 dressings.
The first procedure is performed after 3-4 weeks after germination. Ideal to use complex fertilizer, rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. Also suitable superphosphate at the rate of 30-40 grams per 1 m2.
After 3 weeks you need to feed a second time, it is necessary for the formation of fruits (10-15 grams. Potassium salt per 1 m2). The third time nutrients are administered after 3 weeks.
Pests and Prevention
Beans are one of the few crops that do not attack pests. Can appear unless slugs.
It is possible to prevent their invasion by timely weeding, as the weeds grow and create a favorable habitat for the parasites. When slugs are detected, you can install several traps, from which you need to periodically remove insects for disposal.
The correct time for harvest in the country or gardenHarvest time depends on the type of crop
Harvest time depend on varieties and types culture. Asparagus beans should not be overdone on the beds, in dried form, the product loses its value.
If it is planned to preserve the harvest of legumes, then you can use any immature fruit. But for winter harvesting it is better to wait for the pods to dry out. The main thing is not to be late, so as not to collect beans from the ground.
Do not pick all the pods at the same time in one day, if among them there are completely dry and greenish. In the shade of their own tops, some ovaries might have developed less; they should be left to ripen.
To quickly extract the beans from their "houses" do not necessarily have to sort each by hand. The stick will cope with the work you can knock the harvest.
To do this, only dried pods are laid out on the bedspread, which you need to walk with a simple tool with moderate effort. It only remains to remove the dry part of the beans. Selected beans are still drying and only after sorting is sent to storage.
The agrotechnology of the beans is simple, even a novice gardener can sow and grow it in the Moscow region, Ukraine, the Urals or Belarus. Performing all the procedures in a timely manner, preparations for the winter are provided with an incredibly useful and nutritious product, which also diversifies the menu.