Grapes Lydia won the love of winegrowers with its peculiar taste, ease of cultivation and care and versatility of use. The grapes of this variety are made excellent wine with an exquisite taste, consumed fresh, squeezed juice and boiled compotes and jam. And in addition to Lidia wine can be obtained from excellent varieties - Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon.
Description and characteristics of the grade lidiya
Let's start with a description of the form. This variety appeared thanks to the work of breeders who planted on the wild grape variety Vitis labrusca, resistant to fungal diseases, the variety Vitis Vinifera. As a result, a new grape variety appeared, which immediately gained popularity in Europe, the Transcaucasus.
The grapes are resistant to temperatures as low as -20 degrees and have a strong immunity to fungal diseases. Refers to mid-season varieties. The term of ripening fruits is 155-158 days. The bush is thickly growing, the vine is light brown in color. The leaves are green, weakly dissected, on the reverse side are covered with light felt down. The bush has 82% fruit-bearing shoots, giving 2 hands each. Mature brushes of a small size, each brush weighs 100-110 grams.
The shape of the brush is cylindrical, the density is friable. The berries are pink-purple, oval-circular in shape. The weight of each berry is from 3 to 4 grams. Berries have a wonderful aroma characteristic of this variety. The taste of sweet berries with strawberry flavor. The skin is dense. Contains 18-19% sugar.Bunch of grapes lidia on the vine
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of this variety are:
- high yield-120 quintals per hectare;
- high immunity to diseases;
- frost resistance property;
- berries are resistant to high humidity;
- suitable for transportation
- benefits to the human body.
Among the shortcomings of the variety include:
- lack of immunity against phylloxera lesion;
- with a low content of iron in the soil chlorosis develops;
- requires stamping and keying;
- at late harvesting is subject to crumbling
- harm to the body when improperly prepared wine.
Features of growing
A place to grow this grape variety should be on the sunny side, evenly illuminated by rays from all sides. The vineyard should be protected from the wind, as the attachment of the berries to the hand is weak and strong gusts of wind are able to shake off the ripe berries. The soil for growth should pass air and moisture well. However, the occurrence of groundwater should be at least 1.5 meters from the soil surface. Grows well on black and loamy soils.
Pits for planting grapes need to be prepared in advance, as they have to stand for several weeks. If the spring planting, the pits can be cooked in the fall. It is necessary to dig a hole with a diameter of 90 cm and a depth of 90 cm. Select the ground from the hole and pour clay into the bottom, creating a drainage layer. To improve the soil for grapes in it you need to add:
- sifted river sand (if necessary);
All components mix well with the ground, fall asleep in the pits and leave until spring. By the time of planting the ground will have time to settle well.Ripening clusters of lidia on the vine
The seedling is buried in the soil to the root collar. It should remain on the surface. The land is carefully trampled down, well watered and mulched. Straw, sawdust or pine needles are good for mulching.
During the first months, frequent watering is necessary. Lydia loves moisture, but her stagnation should not be. After watering it is necessary to loosen the soil well.
One of the activities for the care of grapes is chasing. This procedure consists in removing the upper part of the shoots up to 30 cm, with the presence on them of 6-8 not yet developed leaflets. Embossing is necessary for:
- ensure good penetration of light and air to the bushes, thereby reducing the risk of disease;
- redistribution of nutrients from processes to fruits;
- accelerating the ripening of vines and berries;
- yield increase;
- Suspension growth young shoots.
For Lydia, the optimal timing for minting is August.
Mistakes made during coinage
The most common mistakes when performing minting:
- Chasing, carried out earlier than expected, at the stage of development of shoots leads to the fact that there is an incorrect distribution of nutrients. Begin to appear new shoots that need to break off, as this will increase the load on the bush. The vine in this case will not be sufficiently fortified, which will adversely affect the wintering of the plant.
Another negative consequence of early minting is the awakening of the fruit buds, preserved until the new harvest. Instead of preparing for the winter, they begin to bloom.
- Chasing after the required period will have no effect., as the bush will cope with the task of redistributing nutrients by itself by stopping the process of maturing of new shoots.
- Not fully completed embossing, when not removed 30 cm. Vines and leaves leads to the fact that the leaves will continue to grow and take on nutrients.
The simplest and most common method of planting is planting seedlings. However, if there is a stock of an old bush, then it is better to vaccinate. To perform the inoculation, it is necessary to initially prepare the cutting, cutting it out from the escape of a bush of this variety, leaving 3 peepholes on it.
Until spring, the stalk is kept in the sand. The temperature at the storage location should be no higher than +12 degrees. Before inoculation, cut the lower part of the cutting. The upper part must be sealed with paraffin, so that the stalk loses less moisture and tolerates weather changes more easily. The bottom of the need to soak in the root growth stimulator.
Splitting the stock is possible only after the cut is cleaned and all the garbage is removed. An incision is made in the middle, and a cutting is inserted into the slot by a cut part.The shank is clamped by the stock. The vaccination site must be tied down with matter, which will decompose in a year. To keep the moisture longer, it is necessary to smear the place of the vaccination with clay and water it abundantly. Dig up the soil around and grind.Grape saplings, ready for planting in the open ground on an industrial scale
Diseases and pests
Lydia grapes prone to such diseases:
- anthracosis - Fungal disease, which appears on the leaves, vine, shoots of black spots. This disease destroys the vine. Infection occurs through the soil and seeds. In order to prevent removal of damaged areas and burn. Vine is treated with Bordeaux mixture;
- gray rot - A fungal disease affecting the entire vine. Occurs due to poor air access when the planting thickens, or when there is abundant humidity. When infected, it is recommended to treat the bush with Ronilan.
Lydia pests include:
- spider mite - damages the foliage and causes the fall. It is recommended to spray the bushes and soil with the drug "DNOC";
- leafworm - a caterpillar eating fruits and leaves, as a result of which the fruits rot in wet weather. When detected, the soil and bushes are treated with the drug "DNOC";
- phylloxera - an insect that infects the root of a plant, and sometimes leaves. To combat this insect treatment is necessary drug Confidor. The soil around the bushes to fall asleep fine sand.
The grape variety Lydia is extremely popular in the south of Ukraine, Russia and Moldova. He was loved for his unpretentious care, excellent taste and beautiful decorative appearance. Try to grow this variety in your area, and you will be provided with excellent wine, delicious compotes, juice and jam. You can also treat your guests to a fragrant bunch of fresh grapes.