Grapes as a culture known for over a thousand yearsThe name comes from the Latin word "vitilis" and means "climbing." This plant is a long-liver: even without special care in natural conditions, healthy bushes could live to 150 years! But since 1963, grape phylloxera, an insect pest feeding on plant roots, was brought to America from America. Further in the article we will learn how to care for a vineyard in autumn. What to do in October and how to carry out podzimny watering and pruning.
Main care activities in September and October
Modern varieties, most of which are obtained by breeding, resistant to many diseases and adapted to different climatic conditions and regions. But in order to get stable, high yields every year, improve the immunity of the grapes, keep the size of the berries and all their qualities, need to carry out work on the preparation of trees for the winter:
- phased pruning;
- abundant watering;
- top dressing;
- treatment against pests and diseases;
- crockery grape roots;
- shelter plants in winter.
Let us consider in more detail what each of these actions consists in, their benefit for the plant.Autumn grape pruning
Rules of the wintering of grapes in autumn
This is a necessary event that has a very beneficial effect on the development of the plant:
- bushes are rejuvenated every year, the harvest increases significantly and the berries are much larger than those of uncircumcised grapes;
- harvest ripens faster by approximately 10 days;
- facilitated care of bushes and their treatment.
It is recommended to cut the bushes in two stages: in mid-September and in October after the last harvest. Of course, these terms are approximate, because it is necessary to take into account the region and climatic conditions.
The first preliminary pruning is held in September. Bushes free from dry, diseased branches, which must be burned in order to avoid the spread of disease. Remove 10-15% growth shoots grown on the main trunks (sleeves) above the top wire (60 cm).
Closer to the root, at the branching point, annihilated branches of replacement are formed annually: the growth part is left, the fruit bearing this year is harvested. The strongest young vines close to the root are pruned as follows:
- Escape from the outside of the sleeve is cut, leaving 3 buds on it;
- 1-2 shoots from the inside are left under the fruit arrow and they are cut, leaving a number of eyes equal to the diameter of the vine + 1-2 buds (for example, if the diameter is 6 mm, 7 holes are left).
If the variety gives not very large weighty clusters (up to 500g), then you can leave 2-3 more buds more.
Last autumn watering
After harvesting the grapes are watered as needed, so that the plant is not dry. If the weather is wet and rainy, then it is not necessary to water the bushes, except for one abundant moisture-charging watering before winter.
The most convenient way is to dig in the pipes during the planting of the grapes in order to use them to supply the plant with the necessary moisture and liquid fertilizers. But if you did not do this in advance, you need to make small holes or grooves around the bush so that the water does not spread, and the root is saturated with moisture as much as possible. After that, the soil must be loosened, saturate it with oxygen. These activities will help the plant to winter.
Terms of feeding for the vineyard
Fruiting, of course, takes a lot of vitality from plantstherefore, it is recommended autumn dressing during the preparation of grapes for winter. This will guarantee a good harvest in the coming year. It will be enough to add a little water solution of potash and phosphate fertilizers for each bush: potassium nourishes the root of the grapes, and phosphorus strengthens the immune system.
The soil must be loosened after irrigation and fertilization. Organic liquid fertilizers should not be applied, it is best to mumble the soil around the grape trunk with rotted manure mixed with wood ash in the winter.
How to spray crops
Immediately after the last harvest, you need to start processing the grapes with chemical solutions. It is not necessary to delay this, since pests and diseases can cause severe damage to the vines in a very short time. The processing of early varieties should be carried out without waiting for the end of the grape harvest from later varieties. Proper spraying is carried out in windless dry weather, when rain is not even foreseen.
The most effective is the treatment of copper and iron sulfate. If there are no traces of a fungal infection on the grapes, spraying can be divided: in the fall process with copper sulphate (100 g of powder should be dissolved in half a liter of warm water, then the solution should be added to 10 liters with cold water and sprayed with a spray bottle) and treated with iron sulphate in early spring.Processing grapes from striking autumn
LCD very effectively fights all types of fungal diseases and saturates the plant with all the necessary trace elements. Thus, the vine receives protection and foliar feeding at the same time. For the solution, it is necessary to dissolve 300 g of ferrous sulfate in 10 liters of water and abundantly spray the vine and the soil around the trunk.
If traces of the defeat of the bushes with fungal infections are found in the fall, treatments with copper and iron sulphate are carried out simultaneously.
There is another option that is recommended by experts: the autumn processing on the leaves is carried out with soda-salt solution - 5 tablespoons of salt + 5 tablespoons of soda per 10 liters of water. It is necessary to spray 3-4 times in the beginning - middle of October, very carefully processing each leaf, vine and soil around the plant. In this case, the processing of copper and / or iron sulphate can be carried out immediately before the shelter of the vine for the winter.
What is and why need katarovka
Harvesting the roots of grapes is the removal of small roots that are at a depth of 20-25 cm from the surface, such roots are also called dews. Since they are located close to the surface of the earth, they take moisture and food from the surface layer. With a long absence of irrigation and precipitation dew roots can dry out.
In winter, even with small frosts, when the soil freezes to at least t -5aboutthere is a danger of their freezing. In addition, it is dew roots that are most susceptible to infection with phylloxera (a very small grape aphid, living and eating at the expense of the roots).Katarovka grapes in the fall
To avoid all these troubles, they perform katarovka: small roots are removed and this contributes to the development and deepening of the heel roots (deep). But this process is rather laborious and dangerous for grapes, so you need to carefully trim the roots. The roasting of the roots of young plants is carried out 2 times a year - in June and August. If the bush is not young, except for small dew roots, it may have sufficiently thickened. They must be circumcised with extreme caution and gradually - over 2-3 years.
Technology: the soil around the trunk is dug to the desired depth. Sharp pruners cut the roots, leaving no knots. Sections can be disinfected with 3% copper sulphate or 1% boric acid solution, dried and the dimples closed again with earth.
In order not to repeat this procedure every year, the cut part is wrapped with a film of 2-3 layers (weakly, with a margin of 3-5 cm), or cut along a plastic corrugated hose, tied with natural twine and only then covered with earth.
For such plantings it is very important that the grapes have a developed, deeply extending root. At home gardens it is not necessary to hold this event, as timely feeding, watering and shelter of bushes for the winter are possible.Shelter of the vine for the winter with bending down
Shelter and preparation of young vines for winter
After harvesting for the winter, grape bushes are sheltered, especially if there is little snow in the area. To do this, grapevine is removed from the supports, weakly bind the branches and laid on the ground. It is best to cover the vines with spruce branches - branches of pines and firs. Such a shelter provides good air circulation, delays snow cover - creates ideal conditions for wintering.
Top can be covered with foil, leaving gaps for circulation.
All these measures are necessary for the protection of the culture of grapes, for long-term and abundant fruiting. Whether you are at least in the Crimea, Krasnodar or any other region suitable for growing grapes. Although the vines and not very whimsical, but good care helps to obtain stable yields for many years - because the grapes can grow and bear fruit for more than 100 years!