To maximize the efficiency of the tomato bed, cultivate tomatoes in a seedling manner. In the open ground grown plants are planted in May, when the threat of recurrent frosts has passed. The artificial microclimate of heated greenhouses allows you to receive a harvest all year round. However, not all so simple. When growing seedlings tomatoes can hit the black leg, twisting up and drying the leaves. Why this happens and what to do in these cases will be considered further.
Problems with tomato seedlings
For open ground, seeds of tomatoes in seedlings begin to plant in late March - early April. For the full development of the seedlings requires a certain mode of daylight, temperature and humidity. In a city apartment it is difficult to comply with these requirements. There are signs of stunted growth and disease.
Causes of black leg tomato
Inexperienced gardeners may take the initial stage of blackhead disease as insufficient watering. Immature seedlings are bending. It seems that the germ has faded. The natural desire to water the tomatoes will only worsen the situation.
If you look closely, the root part of the stem is covered with microscopic dark dots. This is how colonies of fungi look like, which hit your seedlings. Young plants affected by fungi usually do not survive - very young seedlings without real leaves just fall and die.
The seedlings are slightly older, with 2-3 pairs of true leaves, in the root zone there are characteristic “waistings” that disrupt the natural flow of vegetable juices.
Also, the disease can affect the seedlings of peppers, cucumbers and cabbage.Blackening of the legs in tomato seedlings due to fungal infection
Why leaves may turn yellow
The pale coloring of the leaf plate of seedlings and their further yellowing is a common phenomenon when growing seedlings. In a city apartment, it is difficult to create the necessary microclimate for the healthy growth of tomatoes. The leaves may turn yellow and dry for various reasons.
- Improperly prepared soil mixture for growing seedlings from seeds. Soil has inappropriate acidic or alkaline reaction.
- Irregular irrigation - insufficient or excessive with stagnant water.
- The temperature in the room is too high for the seedlings and the air is too dry.
- Lack of sunlight.
- Wrong mode of dressing.
A change in the natural color of the seedlings gives to know about the problems. Chlorosis, the so-called lack of chlorophyll in plants, most often occurs through the fault of gardeners.
Window sill of a city apartment is not the most comfortable place for seedlings. Dry, warm air rises from a heating radiator and dries the ground in a seedling box. For the best of reasons, when the soil dries out, they spend abundant watering at the root, which provokes diseases of tomato seedlings.
Another sill problem is insufficient lighting. A full-fledged light regime for seedlings implies at least 10 hours of sunlight. Even a south-facing window cannot provide the normal amount of sunlight in March-April.Yellowing of the leaves as a result of chlorosis
Chlorosis manifestation is the first sign of malnutrition in a young plant. In addition to the lack of sun, seedlings sensitively reacts to the deficit of micro and macro elements. Of particular importance to the health of seedlings are nitrogen, potassium and zinc.
Why leaves can curl and wrap
The leaves of such a seedling of tomatoes can not just turn yellow, but also twist in a boat and already later dry. And again, the reason why the leaves can curl should be sought in the wrong watering and low humidity in the room. Wrap leaves with an imbalance of humidity and temperature. In fact, the plant is starving.
In addition to starvation, seedlings could hit bacterial cancer (bacteriosis). Its signs - the leaves curl down, wither, turn brown and dry. There are sores and cracks on the stems and petioles, and a brown ring of affected capillaries is visible on the cut of the stem.
|Trace element||Appearance of fasting|
|Phosphorus (deficiency)||Veins become purple in color, the top of the leaf from a tomato becomes gray outflow|
|Zinc (excess)||Old leaves bend down|
|Lack of copper, boron, zinc||Only young leaves curl|
|Little potassium||Leaves curl, turn pale, shrink and die - necrosis develops|
How to deal with diseases of tomato
It is much easier to get rid of the problem when the first symptoms of the disease appear. Be sensitive to the alarms and do not write off the lack of watering seedlings.
Measures to combat blackened seedlings
Seedlings begin to wither and fall like “cracked”. Carefully study the damaged plant. If you find “waist” on the stem at the root, the diagnosis is clear - “black leg”. You can save only that part of the seedlings, which only “withered”.
Black leg - a fungal disease that develops with improper watering and ventilation of seedlings. Spores of pathogenic fungi live in the soil. With excessive watering and plant thickening, an epidemic of fungal infection develops, which is able to lay out all your plantings on the windowsill within 1-2 days. The disease affects not only tomatoes - all your seedlings are at risk.Strait land with potassium permanganate helps to cope with a black leg in tomato
Emergency measures to combat fungal infection.
- The most simple and reliable means - the usual pharmacy potassium permanganate. It is necessary to prepare a solution of pale pink color and gently pour the earth in the seedling box. It is very important to wet the solution with the top layer of soil. To wash the disinfectant solution from the seedlings, it is plentifully sprayed with clean water.
- You can use any fungicides for garden plants (Ridomil, Kvadris, etc.), but consider the risks of using in a city apartment.
If the treatment is started on time, 2-3 treatments are enough. Subsequently, care should be taken. The second wave of the disease seedlings will not stand.
- When watering, follow the rule: “Inadequate watering is better than an epidemic of fungi.” If the seedling lacks water, it begins to actively build up the root system, which is quite in the interests of the summer resident.
- It is advisable to go to the bottom watering - pour water only in the pan. The plant will be able to obtain the required amount of water (see the previous paragraph). Fungi will not be able to develop in the dry soil of the surface layer.
- For prophylaxis, once a week, spill seedlings between rows with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Treatment of yellowing leaves
Seedlings react with yellowing of the leaves for many reasons. This is manifested if the soil:
- has an acidic reaction;
- with excess fertilizer;
- for growing seedlings took unstructured heavy soil without sand or sawdust;
- watering is carried out with hard water, which leads to the formation of a superficial crust; seedlings roots can not fully breathe;
- Alkaline soil itself provokes the development of chlorosis.
The reasons are different, but the result is one - the leaves turn yellow, dry, die off. It is necessary to save before it is too late seedlings.
|Cause||Solution to the problem|
|Seedlings were poured, the ground was not yet soured, the spots of salt from irrigation with hard water had not appeared||Powder the topsoil with ash and reduce watering (transfer to bottom watering through the pan)|
|Soil soured or initially had an inappropriate reaction, the seedlings are over-fed with fertilizers and grows too closely||Remove seedlings from the ground, select healthy plants and transplant into a new soil of suitable composition. Plant the plants loosely and water each under the root with a faint pink solution of potassium permanganate. When the seedlings take root, provide good coverage for 12-14 hours.|
|Fertilizer shortage||Give both root and leaf feeding with chelates. These complexes are quickly absorbed.|
What to do if the leaves curl up and down
Do not immediately grab the chemicals, noticing that the leaves began to curl and spin. Some varieties have carved corrugated leaves (varieties “Cherry”, for example).
If this shape of the leaf plate is not peculiar to the variety, there’s something wrong with your tomatoes. Leaves can curl into a tube for the following reasons:
- too high ambient temperature with insufficient / excessive moisture;
- An excess of fertilizers of the nitrogen group, which manifests itself as a deficiency in the diet of tomatoes, phosphorus, potassium and calcium;
- viral infections such as bacteriosis, leaf curl, etc.
The easiest way to deal with overheating of seedlings is to simply transfer the seedlings to a cooler place, for example, on a glazed balcony or veranda. From the bright sun you can cover the seedlings with a curtain. Dry air is also not a problem. Especially if watering is done through the pan. To increase humidity, place water in a wide-necked container next to the seedlings. You can also spray the leaves, but only in the morning or evening.Tomato seedling loves coolness
Excess nitrogen fertilizers can be washed from the soil for several abundant irrigations. Simultaneously, tomatoes should be fed with an ash solution: 0.5 l of an ash bank is drawn for 3-4 days in 1-liter of water. Prolonged infusion can be replaced - pour boiling water over the ashes.
Bacterial infection is easier to prevent pre-treatment of seeds and soil. To treat plants when their leaves twist, it makes no sense. Fortunately, cases of bacteriosis are quite rare.
Prevent Disease Tomato Seedlings
A full-fledged high-quality harvest can only bring a strong healthy plant. Even in time, the observed disease and timely measures to save the seedlings do not give a 100% result. Part of the plants (this is at best!) Still dies, and the survivors will lag behind in growth.
Gardeners with great experience advise not to neglect prevention, so as not to engage in treatment.
- Soil for seedlings should be prepared in the fall, mixing all the ingredients.
- It is advisable to sanitize dishes with at least boiling water before filling them with soil. The solution of vitriol, copper or iron, 1 tablespoon to 1 liter of hot water (does not dissolve) works very well with fungi. Do not flush the treatment!
- Seeds of home assembly before planting seedlings, it is desirable to withstand 1/2 hour in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. Attention, seeds produced by agrofirms go on sale already processed. This is indicated on the packaging. They can immediately be planted in the ground.
- Observe planting density: at least 1 cm in a row and 7 cm between rows. This rate is designed for seedlings, followed by picking.
- Organize the bottom watering through the pan.
- Take care of a well-lit area for temperate seedlings. Excellent glazed balcony or veranda of a private house.
- Organize the display of seedlings. A round-the-clock illumination is not necessary - the total should be 12-14 hours of daylight hours. LED lamps or ordinary fluorescent lamps are best suited for backlighting. They are economical in terms of electricity consumption and their spectrum is similar to solar.
If all preventive measures are observed, the seedlings will not be a trouble for you.. Healthy plants come into fruition earlier and give a full-fledged crop. They are less damaged by pests. It is difficult to imagine the presence of the entire set of vitamins in the fruits of reanimated plants. Only healthy tomatoes can be pleased with the presentation and taste.