White mushroom is considered the most valuable and most delicious mushroom. Finding such mushrooms in the forest was considered a great success. This species grows in forests that are at least fifty years old. However, progress does not stand still, and gardeners have figured out how to grow white mushrooms in the country or garden with their own hands. In this article we will explain how to do it step by step at home.
White mushrooms and conditions for their growth at their summer cottage
For good growth white mushrooms need certain conditions - humidity 60%. In drought conditions, even in the presence of moisture in the soil, the fungus stops growing. Since the body of the fungus is not protected from evaporation, it dries out.
Temperature conditions are important for good growth. Spores of fungi can grow at a temperature of +9 degrees, but the optimum temperature for good growth of mushrooms is from +19 to +27 degrees. If the weather is warm and rainy, the growth of mushrooms will continue for 30 days. White fungus can grow up to 13 cm, and the diameter of the cap of such mushrooms will be 17.5 cm.
Conditions for planting boletus on the plot
Boletus grows in coniferous forests, as well as in birch groves and in places where oaks and aspens grow. The roots of these trees have a beneficial effect on the growth of mycelium. This feature should be taken into account when planting boletus on the plot. It is necessary to plant mycelium in the garden in the place where spruce or pine grows. The resin of these trees has an antiseptic effect, killing pathogenic infections around.
If there are no pine trees in the garden, you can place the mycelium next to the buildings of pine tree.Mushrooms will grow in the garden if you choose the right place away from fruit trees
Technology of growing mushrooms in the cellar at home
For the growth of mushrooms there is no need to create additional lighting. Accordingly, they can be easily grown at home in the cellar, if you follow the growing technology. Boletus grown in the basement will differ from mushrooms grown in natural habitat only with hats that have a lighter color.
In preparing the premises for growing borovikov, you must adhere to these recommendations:
- the floor, walls and ceiling must be concreted;
- the walls should be lime white with the addition of copper sulfate. This will prevent the infection of the mycelium of any kind of infection;
- equip additional air ventilation;
- the temperature in the basement should be maintained from +12 to +15 degrees;
- humidity in the basement should be at least 80%.If the humidity is below the required rate - create additional moisture;
- Air vents should be tightened with a mosquito net to prevent insects from entering the basement.
For the cultivation of mushrooms is important to prepare the substrate. It may consist of husks of sunflower seeds, dry corn stalks or sawdust of deciduous tree. Dry the substrate well so that there are no signs of mold or rot. Treat it with hot water.
It is best to grow white mushrooms in boxes filled with substrate. To prepare the substrate will require:
- sunflower seed husks;
Sterilize the substrate and then layered in boxes. Boxes placed on racks, at a distance of 7 cm from each other. The mycelium is buried in the substrate by 5 cm. The temperature in the room should be 24 degrees, the humidity is 88%. At this stage there is no need to air the room. After the appearance of the first shoots, reduce the temperature to 10 degrees and begin to ventilate the room.
Watering is carried out twice a day with a spray. Water for irrigation should be warm. The lights turn on for six hours a day. After 21 days you can harvest.
Planting with the help of mycelium
If the mycelium was taken in the forest for cultivation in the dacha, then it should be borne in mind that you need to plant it under the same kind of tree, otherwise it will not take root. In order to plant a mycelium, it is necessary to remove the top layer of soil with a radius of 70 cm from the trunk under a tree. The depth of the removed layer should be 26-28 cm. Fill the resulting cavity with the prepared substrate:
- ground shot under a tree;
- leaves and pine needles;
- the bark of the tree under which the mycelium is planted.
Lay on this mixture mycelium and sprinkle it on top of the soil, mixed with sand and pine needles, lightly press. Then pour the soil out of the watering can and wait for the first mushrooms to appear.
You can also grow mushrooms from caps. To do this, collect caps of mushrooms with a diameter of 12-14 cm ten pieces. Hats should not be wormy. Next to the tree where the mushrooms were collected also collect:
- some soil;
This will be needed when sowing. Wash the collected caps, place them in a bucket with spring water, or water collected in the rain for 24 hours. After this time, the cap is well kneaded to a smooth mass. You can grind them through a sieve. Drain the water separately in a container and start preparing the beds.
The top layer of soil next to the tree should be loosened, pour water, remaining from soaking mushroom caps. After the moisture is absorbed, it is necessary to sprinkle the rubbed caps evenly over the surface, sprinkle with the soil taken under this tree and pour water on top. The soil must be constantly moderately watered. Water consumption under one tree -40 liters. The temperature of the water for irrigation must match the ambient temperature.When growing mushrooms from caps, it is necessary to choose over-ripe fruits.
Dilution with solution
To grow mushrooms with the help of a solution, it is necessary to take overripe mushrooms and finely chop them. In sliced mushrooms add 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 tablespoon of gelatin. Pour water into this mixture, mix everything thoroughly and pour this solution near the trees. When this solution merges with the roots of trees, a fungus is formed. Two seasons later, it will be possible to harvest the first crop of porcini mushrooms.
The method of instillation at the dacha
To grow mushrooms in this way you need:
- Collect young mushrooms and finely chop them up.
- Bury the finely chopped mushrooms near the tree.
- Water abundantly. Water consumption per tree is 40 liters.
- The first harvest can be collected in 12 months.
With the help of mycelium in the garden
How to plant. Technology for beginners:
- The site for cultivation must be selected under the tree, where there is a sufficient level of humidity and light. On the area of 3 square meters. meter, you must remove 30 cm of topsoil (mycelium package is designed for such an area).
- The bottom is covered with a layer of pine needles, we place leaves and bark from the trees, under which white mushrooms grow. The litter layer must be at least 10 cm.
- Sprinkle with humus.
- Mix the mycelium with sand and sow on the prepared litter. To prevent leaching of the mycelium, it must be covered with humus on top. The layer of humus should be at least 4.5 cm thick.
- Water the area with drip irrigation. If there is no such watering, you can use a watering can.
- Ensure that the soil does not dry out on the garden bed.
After some time, a mycelium is formed at the landing site. With this method of growing from one place you can harvest the mushrooms for five years.When growing white mushrooms from the mycelium can be an impressive harvest
Reproduction of boletus spores in the garden
If the mushrooms have grown a little, they can be multiplied with the help of spores. To do this, you need to take overripe mushroom, choose from the cap all the flesh. It resembles a sponge in structure. In this pulp are the spores of the fungus. Chop the pulp with a knife or grind in a meat grinder to obtain a homogeneous mass. The resulting mass is placed in a two-liter bottle, add 3 teaspoons of sugar, 20 grams of baker's yeast, pour the mixture of rain or spring water and place for 10-14 days in a warm and dark place.
Further 150 gr. The resulting liquid diluted in 10 liters of water, strain through several layers of gauze to pour into a watering can. Spill this solution near growing trees. You can also water the beds with freshly planted strawberries.
Subject to the technology of growing borovikov, taking into account the peculiarities of growth and adhering to the recommendations, cultivation of mushrooms is quite real.