Cultivation of mushrooms has reached colossal proportions. Today not only farms, but also gardeners are engaged in their cultivation. The most popular variety of mushrooms is champignons. To grow them at home, you need to prepare compost. How to do it right with their own hands will be discussed in this article.
Why do you need compost for champignons
Mushrooms need conditions close to nature, moist air and specially prepared compost. Its composition should be loose, nutritious. If done correctly, after 3-4 months it will be possible to get a stable harvest of mushrooms. As for ordinary soil, the mushrooms on it, as a rule, do not grow.
Specially prepared composition should consist of sources of carbon nutrition, mineral additives. This composition will provide the necessary conditions for the growth of fungi. You can buy ready-made soil for champignons, but this is a very expensive business. To reduce costs, the substrate is prepared independently.
Mushrooms, unlike vegetables, do not contain chlorophyll. Its absence does not allow the plant to synthesize nutrients, so they are not grown on ordinary beds. Only thanks to a special substrate, the vital activity of microorganisms necessary for the growth of fungi occurs.
The correct composition of the substrate for growing mushrooms
Compost mushrooms are made on the basis of mown hay (straw). Some gardeners prepare it from fallen leaves, plant waste from the garden. The main thing that the raw materials were not rotten and infected with infections. Later, the used substrate becomes an excellent fertilizer for vegetable beds. In the composition must be present:
- straw, dry foliage or grass (they will provide carbon nutrition);
- sources of organic nitrogen (fresh, stale manure or chicken manure);
- mineral supplements (urea, chalk, bone meal, gypsum);
- bio-activators that contribute to the speedy preparation of the substrate.
In addition to the composition, experienced gardeners pay special attention to composting. At its core, this is a complex process of fermentation of microorganisms. The substrate needs a certain time so that it is ready to plant the mycelium, therefore, this issue needs to be addressed in advance.The correct substrate for mushrooms must have all the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Cooking compost do it yourself
- Prepare the composition in several stages: for this purpose, use specially organized on the site. One will be used for soaking straw, the other is used for composting.
- With proper fermentation, contact of the compost with the ground is not allowed, therefore the sites must be asphalted.
- The grounds are fenced with wooden sides. The size of the fence depends on the amount of compost. Height of sides is 40-50 cm.
- Next, soaked straw or any other available raw materials (hay, grass, leaves). 10 kg of raw materials take 40 liters of water.
- Soaked raw materials are mixed with any organic fertilizer (manure, bird droppings). The surface is leveled and filled with water.
- If there is a lot of compost, straw and manure are put in layers. Rammed and watered.
- 4-5 days a lot of moisturize. Then pour plaster from above. The resulting mass, so that everything mixed up, tossed with forks from one site to another.
- A well-broken substrate is leveled, after which it is watered for another 5 days.
- To fermentation accelerated by watering, add special tools (bio-destructors).
- Every 5-6 days the substrate is shifted from place to place, as people say "interrupt". This is necessary in order to get air inside, then the microorganisms will well decompose the manure with straw.
- Preparing the substrate 24-25 days. During this time, it will become suitable for growing mushrooms. The resulting composition will provide food for mushrooms for 6-7 weeks.
Required materials and equipment
For the preparation of the substrate take in equal shares of straw and manure. You will need a hose for watering or watering. The canopy over the platform so that the compost does not erode the rains and it does not dry out. Also need forks. The compositions may differ, as there are many options for its preparation. The most popular composition is prepared from the following components:
- straw - 100 kg
- bird droppings - 30 kg
- cow dung - 30 kg
- urea - 500 gr
- gypsum with chalk - 8 kg
Straw with organic fertilizers and mineral components are mixed and moistened regularly. To keep the pile moist, you need to water it in the morning, in the evening. Every 5 days to interrupt a heap from place to place. The finished substrate should have a loose consistency and stick to hands.
Manure is taken fresh, if it lies for a long time, it will not contain the right amount of microorganisms. Straw or grass should not have mold, rot.Ready compost heap in which you can populate the mycelium
You can water with ordinary water or with the addition of activators of fermentation. Straw necessarily soaked. Dry components are added in the process of cutting, taking into account the proportions observed.
The process of preparing the substrate for mushrooms - a long and complex. If you follow all the recommendations, the result will be an excellent raw material for growing mushrooms. On the substrate prepared by own hands it is possible to grow up 100-150 kg of fresh mushrooms.
Mushrooms grown in this way are cost-effective for sale. The process of cutting the compost is as follows:
- 1 day - laying of raw materials on the site
- 7 day - interrupting with the introduction of gypsum
- 14 days - watering, interrupting
- 20 day - interrupting, watering
- 25 days - interrupting the finished compost
To a lot of quality rotten, straw can be pre-crushed in the feed mill. Thus, it is possible to crush large grass, leaves, branches.On the right compost mushrooms grow quickly and without any problems.
Depend on the raw materials, the degree of its grinding and the time of year. In hot weather, fermentation is faster. Unshredded raw materials can rot through the years. In this case, you need to use biological preparations Baikal, Renaissance, Radiance.
However, you can do without them, experienced gardeners for this purpose use yeast or whey. It is better if the raw materials pereosto several days than not completely ferment. On average, straw and manure compost is prepared for 22-25 days.
The labor spent on compost preparation will be more than justified. The better the composition, the richer the crop will be harvested from the mycelium. Subsequently, the used substrate is scattered on the beds or greenhouses, it will also serve other plants.