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Chicken Egg Incubation

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Incubation of chicken eggs is an interesting and quite responsible occupation. Starting artificial incubation, it is important to check the operation of all devices and make sure that it is fully operational, otherwise there is a risk that the entire output will die. In addition to equipment and desire, it is important to take into account some other nuances, but first things first ...

Incubator

Basically incubator - This is a box of foam (or analog - polystyrene foam), of different sizes, consisting of a base and cover. Its main functions are to maintain the desired temperature and humidity in the chamber, some models are additionally equipped with an automatic egg flip function, which makes it possible not to depend on hens, which after incubation cease to carry eggs.

Automatic Incubator

Thermostats and the elements that heat the air are located in the lid of the incubator, and water tanks, providing the necessary humidity, from below. Eggs lie closer to the bottom.

Egg flipping

Egg flipping is an important necessity, it is carried out:

  • tame method (the cheapest category of incubators, the main drawback is that you have to open the lid for turning the eggs, and this leads to temperature jumps)
  • mechanical (it is necessary to pull the wire and move the grid on which the eggs lie, they will roll and thereby turn over)
  • automatic (the whole process takes place automatically with the help of an electromotor)

A heating element

The heating element is installed in the lid (top).

Heating element in the incubator cap

Russian manufacturers have released two types of models working on the network. 220V and the combined option 220V + 12VThis is a variation of a conventional system, additionally equipped with adapters for connecting to an alternative power source (for example, a battery). This innovation is good because the backup power source starts automatically when the main power supply fails.

Measuring instruments

Incubation is related to complex technological processes, where the key role is played by the observance of the temperature regime and the correct humidity of the air.

Some manufacturers complete sold incubators thermometers and hygrometers. Someone only with thermometers, and for some models have to buy separately and temperature gauge and moisture meter.

Dimensions

Depending on the volume of eggs laid, you can consider domestic incubators (load up to 150 eggs) and industrial (the number of eggs per tab is virtually unlimited).

Industrial incubator

Eggs

The process of breeding chicks begins with collection and storage of eggs. Not all homemade eggs are suitable for incubation, if the goal is to get healthy, strong offspring that can continue to live fully, then you need to incubate considering the following nuances:

Chicken eggs for incubation
  • In the coop should be cockthe higher the cock sits in the hen house, the stronger the feeling of domination
  • The more he tramples down chickens, the more likely 100% brood
  • Do not use small eggs - chickens will be small and weak
  • It is preferable to choose medium eggs and preferably about one size
  • Cracked eggs, dents, pimples, growths are immediately rejected into the food, the wrong shape of the eggs will not allow the embryo to develop as it should
  • Eggs are not allowed wash or rub, for cleaning, it is necessary to wipe it with a cloth (for example, a rag) of potassium permanganate soaked in a solution or hydrogen peroxide;
  • Optimal deadline for laying eggs - it is from 2 to 7 days, freshness can be determined by the air chamber, the more it is, the older the egg, the older the egg, the more they will lag behind in development
  • Recommended store eggs blunt end up
  • To prevent sticking of the yolk to the shell every three days you need to turn the eggs,
  • If, during translucency, it turned out that the yolk cord broke (the yolk moves sharply inside the shell when turning the egg), then such a sample should also be rejected
  • Storage temperature no less than 10 and no more than 18 degrees Celsius, the longer the eggs intended for laying in the incubator are stored, the lower the temperature
  • Humidity during storage eggs intended for incubation not more than 80%
  • If used incubator without automatic egg flip function, it is convenient to note the top and bottom in order not to get confused (you can use a simple pencil, unlike markers and markers, it is not liquid and will not be able to leak through the shell to the embryo)

Humidity

Incubator humidity is maintained by water evaporation from containers placed on the bottom, the indicators of the hygrometer must be monitored and, if necessary, controlled evaporation.

The water level should be checked about once every three days.

On a note:

  • to accelerate the evaporation and thereby quickly raise the humidity indicators by dropping the cloth in a container with water
  • you can slow down evaporation and lower the moisture values ​​by reducing the evaporation area, for example, by placing a piece of foam in a container with water.

Temperature

Not recommended turn on the warm-up incubator before laying eggs, otherwise the temperature drop may adversely affect brood.

Temperature required for incubation should be adjusted according to the table temperature regimes (table below)

Temperature is recommended to control several thermometersbecause sometimes they instill a little, and in this case every degree affects the result.

Important! Even if the incubator is fully automated, you still need to control the temperature and humidity regularly!

Ovoscope

Eggs are translucent on the ovoskop

Ovoskop helps to identify suitable eggs before laying in the incubator. Shining egg It should be attached to the body with a blunt end. Major defects detected by this device. Translucent eggs for the first time held on 7-8 day (after the first viewing, it is possible to remove from the incubator not fertilized or having any other defects of the egg), the second time on 12-13 daycan be enlightened and on 18 day.

Egg laying

Practice has shown that egg laying more convenient to spend in the evening. Pre-eggs should be taken out of a cool room to a warmer room to warm to room temperature. Then lay in the incubator

Laying eggs in an incubator

Incubation periods

Temperature chart

Incubation periodDaysTemperatureHumidityTurnVentilation
11-737.8-38.0 ° C55-60%4-8 times a day-
28-1437.8-38.0 ° C50%4-8 times a day-
315-1837.8-38.0 ° C45%4-8 times a day2 times a day for 10-15 minutes
419-2137.5-37.7 ° C70%--

Only 4 incubation periods:

  • 1-7 days - the first is considered the day of the bookmark, is set temperature 37.8-38.0 degrees and humidity 60%. The first week of change indicators do not need the embryo is just formingIt is important to provide a stable, comfortable conditions, you only need to turn the eggs in order to avoid sticking of the chicks to the shell.
Feature: the first three time periods you need to turn the eggs as often as possible (to get as close as possible to the natural conditions), but if you can not turn every hour, you can change their position on the table, most importantly through equal time interval.

When ovoskopirovaniya, at the end of the first period, should be visible well-developed vascular system and the germplasm in which the embryo is located, it is not yet visible. At this stage you can remove extra eggs (not fertilized or damaged)

Ovoscoping eggs in an incubator
  • 8-14 days - the next 4 days you need to reduce the humidity, and continue to turn the eggs. During this period for the future chick especially humidity is importantbecause lack of water can destroy the embryo. During this period, allantois (fetal organ of respiration) is located in the acute part of the egg and should already close.
  • 15-18 starting from the second week you need to start air the incubator a couple of times a day thereby temporarily reducing the temperature, not forgetting to turn the eggs. Air triggers metabolism and increases gas exchange. The ovoscope during this period will show the space tightly filled with the embryo, only the air chamber will remain hollow.
Attention! During normal development, at this stage, the air chamber should occupy about 30% of the entire egg, and the border is curved by a tubercle.

During this period you can already hear squeak from the egg. The nestling tries to stretch its neck towards the blunt end of the egg and tear the air chamber, after which it reaches the shell.

  • 19-21 about 19 days after laying, reduce the temperature in the incubator up to 37.5-37.7 and increase humidity up to 70%. In the last days, leftover protein and yolk are used and light curse begins. The temperature drops, the humidity rises, distance between eggs it should be as high as possible and during this period they should not be turned over; in general, it is better not to touch the eggs. It is important to ensure good air circulationbut not a draft.
On a note: The health of chickens can be determined by their squeak. The norm is a calm, gentle and monotonous sound. Worse, if the squeak is loud and heavy, it means that the chick is cold.

On day 21 the chicks must slip, the chicken turns counterclockwise and pecks through the shell. Healthy chick break the shell in about three blows and the pieces of the shell will be large. Having placed the head at the blunt end, and the neck at the sharp one, it relies with its weight on the walls of the shell, and, breaking it, breaks it. It is necessary to give them dry themselves and after that place in a warm dry place.

Chickens bite the eggs

Signs of a healthy chicken:

  • Taut stomach
  • Soft umbilical cord
  • Powerful legs
  • Brilliant fluff
  • Active
  • Reacts to sounds
  • Clear eyesslightly convex
  • Short beak

How much chickens you can grow depends only on you. Young mortalityAs a rule, a consequence of either not properly selected eggs, or errors in the incubation regime. You can not completely trust the technology in the cultivation of poultry, no one is immune from technical failures. Supervise work even the most automated incubator needs at least every 8 hours.

Chickens in the incubator

Also important sanitized and incubator after use, and before the new tab.

If you follow these not complicated rules, then small yellow lumps, whether they are broilers or just a simple breed, will gladden you with their appearance more than once.

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