Chickens in the household are bred and kept mainly for two purposes: obtaining dietary meat and eggs. The latter are the concentration of vitamins, microelements, nutrients. Egg production in chickens appears at 4.5 - 5 months of age, and productivity decreases with the achievement of poultry 2.5 - 3 years of age. If it falls, there are reasons for this, having understood that it is possible to rectify the situation, why chickens stop rushing, see below. However, not everything depends on the person, but it is quite possible to minimize negative processes.
Causes affecting egg laying chickens
In the process of keeping birds in captivity, people gain invaluable experience that helps to identify and systematize the main reasons for the decline (termination) of egg production. We offer the following systematization of reasons:
Dependent on conditions of detention:
- ambient temperature;
- diseases (conditionally attributed to this category, since conditions of detention largely determine the presence or absence of the disease).
- molt (conditionally attributed to this category)
- the influence of the solar and lunar cycles;
- geomagnetic storms and other natural phenomena.
Let us consider in more detail each cause separately.
For normal productivity of laying hens need a light day around 12-15 hours. Light exposure on the body of the bird is associated with its effect on the optic nerve, hypothalamus, the release of certain substances that stimulate hormones. They, in turn, affect the work of the ovaries. We will not delve into the anatomical subtleties of this process. Suffice it to say that the relationship between the length of daylight and egg production definitely exists.Coop lighting
It is advisable gradually increase the light day associated with the beginning of the laying: first set at 10-12 hours, gradually raise to 14-15. A sharp increase in daylight hours will not give good positive results. If the bird is in a room with small windows or without them at all (with a walking type of content), it is better to take part of the backyard or summer cottage for walking outside, not in the room. The goal is more room for movement, an increase in daylight. If the content of the hens is cellularIt is advisable not to install incandescent lamps, but fluorescent lamps. It is important that the nests themselves do not have solid gloom or bright light. Light shading is enough.
Proper diet and nutritional period - recipe for success. Often, poultry farmers face two related problems that are directly dependent on nutrition. This is the absence or reduction of egg production and the problem associated with the fact that birds peck eggs. Both in the first and in the second case, the root is one - lack of necessary vitamins and trace elements in the feed. In addition, oversupply leads to obesity, which negatively affects the production of a normal number of eggs throughout the year.
There should be a sufficient amount of protein, fat, carbohydrates, mineral salts, vitamins in the feed. The basis of the ration of hens is whole grain: wheat, corn, barley, triticale, oats, rye - all this can be given as feed. It is recommended to alternate in the diet of grain of different cultures. It is not necessary to mix 5-6 types of grain in one feeding. Otherwise, they choose what they like. The rest is trampled or scraped.Feeding laying hens
Lack of vitamins and microelements pushes the hen to compensate for the lack of them by pecking the eggs laid. In this regard, you need to take a series of measures:
- timely remove eggs from nests, because the chicken can crush them by accident and peck at it. This quickly becomes a habit, and it is very difficult to wean poultry from such actions;
- make nests spacious and in sufficient quantity so that the hen can occupy the free nest;
- diet do in such a way that it contains enough trace elements and vitamins. One way to replenish these substances is to add shredded shells and ground eggs to the feed;
- when added to the shell feed It is important to ensure that it is well dried and finely rubbed. Simply divided and crushed shells are not suitable for feeding. Otherwise, all this provokes chickens to get used to the pecking of eggs laid.
Approximate diet for laying hens (grams per head per day)
|22-47||47 and older|
|Meat or fish waste||5||10|
|a piece of chalk||3||3|
To obtain a good result, it is not recommended to feed the hens for slaughter. It means that 3 meals a day - optimal mode. Constantly in the trough should not be grain. Power mode is designed so that feed first time them as early as possible in the morning, but after dawn. If it is winter, then artificially prolong daylight hours. In this case, give food after turning on the lighting. Feed second time in the afternoon (13: 00-14: 00). Evening feeding is recommended an hour before the bird sits down for the night. In the evening it is recommended to feed grain, and in the afternoon to diversify the nutrition of the mash, pure green mass.
The greatest danger to egg production viral diseases:
- Newcastle disease: reduces this figure to 25-35%.
- Infectious laryngotracheitis: breathing becomes difficult, the bird dies from suffocation. Naturally, in the process of illness, there are no good results in obtaining eggs.
- Infectious bronchitis: the disease is accompanied by dysfunction of the oviduct. A decrease in egg production is accompanied by an increase in the proportion of eggs of irregular shape and with a rough shell.
- Infectious encephalomyelitis: reduces egg production by 7-12%.
- Flu: characterized by the death of a large number of birds and a sharp decline in egg-laying chickens.
To prevent or minimize the effects of the disease a number of preventive measures: laying hens are kept apart from the rest of the bird, they provide only high-quality and fresh food, one or two people take care of the hens (since people are the carriers of many diseases, their access to poultry should be limited). In addition, the separation of sick birds from healthy and directly vaccination helps.
Optimum temperature for layers - ranging from 17 to 22 degrees. If it is lower, the bird spends its energy to heat the body. The increased ambient temperature forces it to drink more moisture, to look for places with a temperature lower than in a cozy nest with soft straws. Both the first and second negatively affect the total number of eggs laid. To maintain the optimum temperature in the hen house, it is necessary to warm it and heat it in winter. In the summer, they provide a room with good ventilation without drafts and the possibility of walking in the morning and evening, and in the daytime - hiding in the room from the scorching sun.
Shedding is the process of a natural feather change in a bird. It comes, as a rule, in the autumn, before the onset of winter. The molting period itself runs from a month to three. The smaller this period, the better the chicken is carried. Another feature: if the chicken starts to moult in October-November, then it will carry more eggs. Accordingly, the longer the molting period and the earlier it occurs, the lower the egg production.Shedding chickens
Molting in chickens is influenced by many factors:
- defective and unbalanced nutrition;
- high temperature the environment in the house;
- insufficient amount consumed liquids;
- too magnified daylight hours for a long period;
- action certain diseases;
- various stresses, other factors.
To reduce molting time a forced change of bird feathers is carried out. The meaning of this operation is to save feed, to enter into the molting stage together and also to withdraw chickens from it. At the same time, the total molting period is reduced to one and a half months. This is achieved by changing the diet, the length of the day, the temperature regime (temperature increase), artificial starvation, etc.
Stressful situations always negatively affect the number of eggs laid. This is a shy bird. She is frightened by harsh sounds, knocks, a sharp drop in light, and the sudden appearance of a person in a hen house. Even the sound of rain on the glass or metal roof adversely affect the process of egg production. All new chicken perceives with caution, gradually getting used to the changed conditions. Therefore, any move for her is a huge stress. To avoid stressful situations, minimize the above factors or remove them altogether.
Often, the poultry farmer is faced with a situation where, when buying an adult chicken on the market, it stops rolling. In our opinion the main reason is the resulting stress after the move and absolute change of scenery.
When buying an adult bird at a poultry farm, should remember:
- the most productive laying age - up to two years. Therefore, if you buy a bird older, there is a high probability that its egg production will gradually decrease;
- at the poultry farm feed livestock feed from the very beginning, the composition of which make at home is very difficult. therefore cardinal change of diet adversely affects on laying eggs.
To produce a large number of eggs from one hen, you need to grow or purchase egg breed chickens. It is believed that the egg breed itself is a leggorn. However, this is not the case in all cases. In addition, genetics do not stand still. Therefore, you can buy a new breed, which will be more adapted to specific living conditions, and will show the best result.Leggorn Hens
Seasonality: spring, summer, autumn, winter
Usually, spring and autumn are those seasons in which the laying of chickens falls. What is the cause of this phenomenon? In our opinion, this is due to climatic conditions. Winter is always colder. To warm themselves, the chicken spends a certain amount of energy that no longer goes to laying eggs. This can be avoided by installing additional heating in the hen house. Then, in winter, spring and autumn, the air temperature in the coop will remain approximately the same; there will be no abrupt transition in temperature from winter to spring. In the fall, besides changing the temperature, molting begins, which also affects egg production. The factors that accompany her and her influence on the layer are described above.
In summer, the decline in the number of eggs laid due to hot weather.. At temperatures above 25 degrees, the chicken rushes reluctantly, flies on the perch, swinging open, spreading its wings to the side, thereby trying to somehow reduce the temperature of its body. During this period, she drinks a lot, which also lowers egg production. A well-designed ventilation system, airing the room partially eliminates the problem of high ambient temperature.
In addition to all the factors listed above, chickens affect chicken productionor rather, their proportionality to the number of chickens. Many believe that there should be only one rooster in one pen. Then the number of chickens is limited to ten. Some half of a hundred livestock of chickens in one corral are holding four or five roosters. But if the third part of the total population turns out to be roosters, this will lead to a periodic struggle for supremacy.Chicken layer with eggs
Effect of solar and lunar cycles, as well as geomagnetic storms and other natural phenomena have been little studied. But there is no doubt that they also affect the number of eggs laid. By the way, folk methods of raising egg production are based on the rituals associated with the lunar cycles.
In any case, good care, hard work and proper attitude to the poultry will play a role, and laying hens will thank you.