The presence of turkeys in the poultry yard now surprise no one. They are grown for dietary meat. Low cholesterol, a variety of vitamins and amino acids provides easy digestibility of turkey meat. An adult individual gains body weight up to 20-30 kg. However, they are still not as popular as chickens or geese. Why?
The reason lies in the fact that turkeys are more susceptible than other birdsin the need to provide them with a large territory for walking. And the turkeys themselves are big in size. Many, especially hostesses, are afraid to look after them because of the fear of being pecked by these "monsters".
This article will deal with the proper care, feeding, treatment of possible diseases of poults at home.
The content of turkeys in industrial production and home conditions
Taking into account that turkeys are large, wide-breasted birds, their home keeping has its own specifics. In industrial production sometimes they use a cell method of breeding them. At home - almost always prefer a free-standing.
It is used only for poultry of light breeds. This is directly related to their live weight. In one cage hold no more than two heads. Males are separated from females. Grow turkeys up to a maximum of 4 months of age. It is advisable to keep young animals in cages for sale until the age of one and a half months.Turkeys in cages
- saves space due to the possibility of content in 2 tiers. With this method, cells are placed along the aisles. The efficiency of use of the area increases by 2 times;
- by saving space livestock in one house can be increased by 1.7-1.8 times;
- the bird is easier to maintain, increases the productivity of staff.
The disadvantages of this content are much greater.. This is the reason that this method did not find wide distribution:
- reduced growth rate young animals after one month of age;
- reduced reproduction in males and females;
- weakening of the leg muscles due to limited space. Since the bird is heavy, muscles need periodic physical exertion;
- wings break, since their scope is large, and the area of content is limited;
- Turkeys and turkeys are more stressed, and become fearful, with a sharp knock they raise general hysteria, fight in the cells and often, breaking open the doors, fall to the floor, and get injured bones;
- Unnecessarily fat is deposited in the liver.
With this method of breeding the bird feels better. It is not much different from the content of chickens or geese. Apply open-range and captive method.
This is the best content option. But it requires the constant presence of a person. With this method, in the daytime, a herd of turkeys is released on the land unsuitable for agriculture for grazing. Slow-running bird finds food for itself, which is not limited to plants only. Turkeys will peck at almost anything that comes their way: insects, including those harmful to crops, vole mice, and other small animals. When the onset of heat (if walking is carried out in the summer), the herd hides in the shade of trees or abandoned buildings. With the onset of puberty, males are separated from females. and graze separately. The main part of the diet consists of grass and grain. It is possible to let out on open walking a bird when it has reached one and a half month age.Open-air turkeys
The advantages of this method of content:
- overall increases reproduction;
- disease susceptibility decreases by enhancing immunity;
- reduced feeding costs due to eating green mass;
- improved bird healthbecause daily exercise and systematic stress on the muscles occur;
- growth rate increases chickens;
- not required no additional investment.
- With this method of walking constantly human presence is required.
The enclosure for turkeys is done in the same way as for keeping chickens or geese. Main difference - The size of the enclosure should be large. It is built at the rate of 10 square meters per head. I.e, to contain 20 goals, you need to protect the plot of 200 square meters.Turkey poults in the open-air cage
If possible, fence off two equal sections. They are periodically changed for grazing and walking. If there is no free area, then it is advisable to leave a walking area of 10 m2 per head, rather than reduce, divide into two parts for the sake of rotating the plot. In this case, the bird is fed with freshly cut grass. During daylight hours in hot weather, turkeys are either driven into the room, or they are equipped with canopies to create shade. In the same place place feeding troughs and drinking bowls.
Little turkeys: how to feed and care in order to grow healthy offspring
Caring for turkeys is no more difficult than for other poultry. There is no need to build special premises for their maintenance. Use chicken houses, remaining after chickens, geese. Main condition - the room should be spacious. At a height of 70-80 cm from the floor we establish perches of thick wooden bars. At a height of 50-60 cm we make nests for turkeys in remote areas of the house. Feeders and drinkers are installed.
For offspring We first build turkey nests with hay and straw. Put small branches on the bottom to stiffen the shape of the wreath. If there are several nests, they must be separated from each other as high as possible. We do not allow turkeys to nests. If the turkeys have left the eggs for eating, make sure that they do not get cold. To do this, slightly cover with straw.
Poults hatch not in one day. Therefore, we remove newborn chicks from a nest in a separate box. If necessary, light up the lamp. We also create the necessary microclimate at the expense of the heater, since the birth of chicks occurs in spring, at least - in the autumn. After all the turkeys hatched, they are returned to the turkey.
We make sure that there are no drafts in the room, so that it is bright, temperature condition in summer time - not higher than + 25, in winter - not below +5 degrees. To reduce the air temperature we use airing and ventilation. To maintain warmth in winter, we make windows and doors warming. In very cold winter periods we additionally heat the room.
Feeding poults, diet tables, daily intake and correct diet
In connection with a set of large body weight (up to 20-30 kg) during his life turkeys need a lot of feed. First of all, poults that have just been born need a balanced diet.
In order to raise healthy offspring, you can feed as much as possible, but according to the standards, but the normalized type of fattening is more suitable for feeding ready-made balanced feed.
Standards for feeding poults:
|Age, weeks||Norm of feeding, gr|
In the early days
In the first hours of hatched turkey poults need to drink clean water with the addition of glucose. After 8-10 hours day-old chicks are fed finely crumbled boiled egg. Make sure that there are no large lumps left. To reduce feed moisture, you can add corn flour or wheat bran. It is better to put food on a rag litter so that it draws out excess moisture. Up to a week old poults are also fed with grated skim cheeseWith the addition of a large amount of grass to the diet: dandelion, wood louse, euphorbia, finely chopped green onion feather. Gradually, we are switching to feeding with wheat millet, wheat derby. Make sure that the feed is not too wet. Otherwise, poults will develop an upset stomach, which is dangerous at their age. We give barley and oatmeal as an independent feed. Food at such an early age for turkeys is given at intervals of every three hours. We make a separate feeder for mixers, for dry food there should be our own. Make sure that the water is constantly fresh water.
From a week to a month
During this period turkeys grow intensively and gain weight.. They are active, run, eagerly eat everything they are given. Gradually increase the share of green mass in the overall composition, bringing it up to 30% of the total feed. Greens can be finely chopped by mixing with dry food. They also give pure greens. It is better to feed a balanced feed in this period. At the age of two weeks chalk and bone meal are added to the feed. We add potassium permanganate to the water in such a way that the solution is not pink. During this period turkeys are fed every 4 hours. With good feeding to the age of one month, the youngsters gain in weight up to two kilograms.
From a month to two
During this period, the young are fed only three times a day. This results from the fact that their activity falls. In order not to accumulate fat, stop adding feed to the diet.. The main focus is on grain and grain waste, green mass, bran, crushed maize, dry residues of animal origin. Give wet mash, increasing the amount of protein feed: this is minced meat waste or inexpensive fish, etc. By the onset of hot weather turkeys reach two months of age and gain a decent mass.
After two months before slaughter
The diet in this period of life is no different from the previous one. Increasing the share of grain and grain waste in the total mass. We transfer the bird to the free-form way of keeping. About him told above. Adult turkeys for reproduction hold up to two and a half years, turkeys for breeding chicks up to three years of age. If the purpose of cultivation - the implementation of meatIt is advisable to fatten livestock up to five months of age. With the onset of autumn decreases the natural growth of herbs. To replenish it is necessary to increase the proportion of grain. The economic effect of growing is reduced.
Approximate rations for turkey poults shown in Table. 1-3.
Table 1. Approximate diet of turkey poults, g per head per day (1st version)
|meat and bone meal||5||5||2||5||5||-||-|
Table 2. Approximate diet of turkey poults, g per head per day (2nd version)
|low fat cottage cheese||2||5||10||5||-|
|Whole Grain / Corn Grain||5||7||152||208||3015|
Table 3. Approximate diet of turkey poults, g per head per day (3rd option)
|two types of grain||5||8||20||30||50||60||80||15||145||175|
Turkey diseases: symptoms, treatment and prevention of diseases
In the process of life, turkeys need not only indoors, food, but also protection against diseases.
The main ones are:
- Smallpox: a contagious disease that manifests itself in the refusal of the bird to eat and drink, turkeys become sedentary, feathers ruffle, wings hang down. They are infected by another sick bird, flies, mosquitoes. Infected individuals should be destroyed and burned, while healthy individuals should be vaccinated with vaccine embryos. As a preventive measure, turkeys in the sixth week of life are vaccinated with this drug.
- Worms: pests that settle inside the individual, affecting the digestive organs and respiratory tract. The bird starts to lose weight. Sources of infection: soil, other infected poultry, feed. Ways of struggle: the use of piperazine sulfate, phenothiazine. Preventive measures: sanitary treatment of the premises.
- Respiratory mycoplasmosis: bacteriological disease covers the respiratory tract, inflamed mucous membrane of the eye. Turkeys lose orientation, walking, staggering. Without treatment, individuals may die. The disease infects a healthy bird through contact with the sick. The reduction of immunity due to unbalanced feeding and improper maintenance contributes to the emergence (overcooling of individuals, high humidity and dirt in the room). Ways of struggle: Chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline is added to the diet during the week at the rate of 4 grams per 10 kg of feed. Erythromycin, levomycetin and streptomycin are also saved by antibiotics. Prevention: balanced food, the room is kept clean, its constant airing.
- Tuberculosis: the most dangerous disease due to the scale of the destruction of livestock. All respiratory organs are affected. The bird practically does not eat, sits in one place, blasphemes. The source of contamination is dirty water.infected with tubercle bacillus inventory and litter. An infected bird is recommended to be urgently destroyed. The best way to fight - availability of direct sun exposure to the room and fresh air. Avian leave is not populated and open. Livestock transferred to another place.
- Gastomonosis: affects the cecum in poultry, other digestive organs. Symptoms: turkeys begin to vilify, rapidly lose their weight. It is urgent to separate the infected bird from the healthy one. The room is cleaned and disinfected. Forazolidone, osarsol or phenothiazine is added to the feed. The cause of the disease - in a dirty room and the lack of disinfection after the previous inhabitants.
- Hard goiter: The reason lies in the unbalanced diet, which is limited to solid feed. It is necessary to add chalk, pebbles of gravel and shells to the ration so that the grain in the goiter can be processed better. The bird is slaughtered for meat. It is not contagious.
- Hypovitaminosis: in diseased birds, the eyes become inflamed and rickets develop. The body does not have enough vitamins. With the appearance of the disease make injections from a complex of vitamins.
- Diarrhea: the cause is viral diseases, direct contact with parasites, as well as the consumption of low-quality food. If the diarrhea is brown in color, it means that some foodstuff is not suitable for young turkey poults. If the color of excrement is white - These are signs of infectious disease pullorosis. Ways of struggle: watering a decoction of chamomile or a solution of potassium permanganate, if that does not help, is treated with antibiotics.
- Leg disease: arise because of keeping the bird in a confined space (in cages, small poultry houses). Manifested in the fact that sick turkeys fall to their feet. Another cause of the disease is a deficiency in the diet of calcium-containing foods. Prevention: eggshells, chalk, shells, less soybean, fats, and a limited amount of corn are added to the feed. Arthritis in turkeys occurs as a result of an excess of protein in the diet.
- Newcastle disease: infection. As a result, paralysis of the lower extremities occurs. Vaccination is carried out against this disease. But not always and it helps. Prevention: adding to the diet of mineral and vitamin supplements, fresh herbs, cottage cheese (for poults).
- Runny nose (rhinitis): its main causes are hypothermia, lack of vitamins. The exceptions are vitamins A and D. Also the cause of rhinitis in turkeys can be a poorly ventilated room in which they are contained. Treatment and prevention: there are cases when the runny nose of turkeys quickly passes, if they are placed in a warm dry room and continue treatment of turkeys with infusion or decoctions of dill (seed). You can also give them an infusion made from violets, or from leaves and strawberries. But the beak and nostrils are recommended to wipe with a pen dipped in salt water. For this solution, you must take a glass of water and one teaspoon of salt. After this procedure, you should smear the beak with boron fat.
Breeding turkeys as a business is still underdeveloped. But after all together with dietary meat we get egg, fluff, feather. With a competent approach to the business, a dozen heads of such a bird will be enough to provide the family with meat and its implementation in order to compensate for material costs. The increase in livestock entails a good net profit.