One of the available and nutritious fertilizers that fill the deficit of valuable trace elements with the restoration of the soil structure is compost. It can be purchased in finished form or procure directly at the site independently, equipping the pit in a convenient way. On how to make a garden compost pit with his own hands and options for its production, we will discuss later.
The objectives of the garden compost pit in the country
In any farm there is organic waste:
- vegetable and fruit cleaning;
- dry grass;
- trimmed branches;
- tops of garden crops;
- paper, cloth scraps (natural);
- bird droppings and manure, etc.
Filling them with a specially equipped place, it is possible after some time to get a nutrient mixture for the garden and vegetable garden. The soil after the introduction of organic matter is not only enriched with valuable substances, but also improves the microbiological environment, becomes loose, to which almost all cultures grown in the country give a positive response.
For any summer resident compost is considered the first assistant. First, there is no need to store and export household and vegetable waste from the yard. Secondly, it is not necessary to spend money on the purchase of finished organic fertilizer.
The presence of the compost pit facilitates the process of utilization of the tops after harvesting the beds. Previously, plant debris just burned. Now, many are harvesting nutrient mixtures from it, which in the spring are scattered around the garden and garden.
The advantages of the compost pit in the country
Compost pit at the cottage solves the following problems:
- provides partial recycling of organic waste;
- fertilizer retains moisture when applied to soil, thereby creating favorable conditions for the growing season;
- if the pit is laid according to the rules, then the plants and the soil will not be subjected to infection with various diseases, in contrast to the acquired nutrient mixtures;
- it is quite simple to equip a hole, because all the materials are at hand;
- if you stick to the technology of making compost pits, unpleasant smell will not spread throughout the site.
Ways to organize a place for the production of compost set. As an option, make it yourself or buy a special composter. The main advantage of the container under the organics is a more aesthetic appearance, which is lacking in the usual pit.
In addition, problems with odor disappear even at the initial stage of fermentation of the embedded layers. Mobile and compact design can be periodically rearranged to another corner of the courtyard, paint the surface with bright colors, decorating an additional area. It is very easy to make a composting box, the necessary materials will always be available at the cottage.Having a pit in the country can be disposed of in it all the available weeds
It can be both wooden boards and slate. The main thing in assembly to comply with the requirements for the composter.
What better to build for compost
Many are wondering how to better arrange a place for composting. On the one hand, knocking a simple construction out of scrap materials presents no difficulty.
But even this primitive process has some peculiarities, while ignoring which one may not get high-quality fertilizers. And sometimes homemade mix called nutritional difficult. On the other hand, it will be possible to avoid mistakes in the design and assembly of the structure if you purchase a ready-made composter. However, this solution has a second side of the coin - an additional item of expenditure.If you do not want to dig a hole, you can build a composter.
Therefore, it can be unambiguously argued that any way of arranging a composter facility has advantages and disadvantages. In addition, there are a lot of different technologies for construction. For example, as an option, Finnish. When instead of the pit construct a wooden box.
You can evaluate the pros and cons of the pit and the composter using this table.
|easy installation||when constructing a pit, one must strictly follow the rules for laying layers||compact design does not spoil the look of the yard||high cost|
|ability to use different materials||decomposition process occurs only in the warm season||can be moved to any corner of the site (mobility)||need a careful approach to choosing a composter (takes into account the functionality and durability of the material)|
|minimum expenses for arrangement (or lack thereof)||unobstructed penetration of rodents and other pests||convenient design giving access to all parts of the filler|
|no special requirements for the choice of location (only the presence of shading)||the spread of unpleasant odor on the site||no unpleasant smell|
|in the pit eliminated drying tabs||fragility||the presence of insulation provides a continuous process of decomposition of components|
How to make a compost pit with your own hands
Compost pit can be equipped by digging a pit with a depth of 80-1.2 m. This method is simple, but has more drawbacks. It is inconvenient to maintain the pit, it will be necessary to stir the filler periodically, and this will be difficult to do. It is known that the lower layer decomposes faster in the pit. It is very difficult to get it from the bottom, so limiters about 50-80 cm in height are often installed above the ground. The boards can be boards, a chain-link, slate, shields and other materials. And in this case it will be necessary to deepen only by 30-60 cm.
The sequence of manufacturing a compost pit, recessed into the ground by a third:
- To clear a place under the object and to mark with pegs the tops of the sides.
- Dig a ditch to a depth of 40 cm according to intended size.
- Knock a box out of 4 bars and planks, leaving gaps (2 cm) between the planks to ensure air circulation. On the lower part of the structure there should be supports of 50-70 cm (they are immersed in the ground when installed).
- Install the box in the prepared pit.
- Lay the bottom of the notch with spruce leaves, straw or small branches with a layer of 10 cm.
- Further layers should alternate between dry and wet bookmarks. To speed up the decomposition process, it is recommended to shift each layer with nitrogenous additives (manure, green grass, bird droppings, etc.).
- Top of the fill with fertile soil (thickness of 15-20 cm).
- To preserve heat, it is recommended to cover the box with a film. Periodically it needs to be opened for airing.
- As a catalyst, it is possible to pour components with a hot solution of manure or bird droppings.
- The contents of the pit should be mixed 1-2 times a month. If steady heat is established, the maturing compost is watered.
Technology, how to make a punch at the cottage
A plastic barrel can be used to make a homemade composter. The advantage of the device is that the aging time of fertilizer is reduced to 4-8 weeks.
To build a structure you will need the following materials:
- polymer barrel with a lid with a capacity of 150-200 ml;
- latches (4 pieces);
- bolts with washers and nuts;
- galvanized pipe or thick metal rod (this element will need to twist the container, so it must be durable).
The sequence of installation of the composter:
- Knock off the frame (the design is a side X-shaped elements connected to the two lower sides of the contour, the dimensions are taken taking into account the height of the barrel). The thickness of the tree should be taken taking into account the weight of the full capacity.
- Cover the barrel and drill a through hole in the bottom and top. The diameter of the hole must match the parameters of the pipe or rod. The axle will subsequently rest on the frame.
- Cut out the door in the side of the container and fix it on the hinges. On three sides, fasten the clips. From improvised means make the handle.
- Through the entire surface of the barrel to make through holes to ensure air circulation.
- In several places drive long nailsthat will serve as dividers. Instead of nails, you can use studs, tightening them with bolts.
- Thread axle through center hole (pipe) and fix the protruding ends on the frame.
The ability to rotate the design allows you to easily and simply mix the filler, which must be done 1 time in 5-7 days.
What can not be loaded into the pit or composter
The term organic waste does not mean all the accumulating garbage, but certain components that, together and in the right proportion, enter into the fermentation process, transforming thanks to microorganisms into a nutritious product for the soil and plants.
What can not be put in the compost pit:
- weed grass - it contains toxins and poisons, as well as seeds, which under favorable conditions will germinate;
- citrus peel - the content of essential oils in the cleanings drives away worms and other underground inhabitants involved in the fermentation process;
- to the tops of affected crops - spores and pathogenic bacteria do not die when the plant residues are decomposed, therefore improper compost contributes to the infection of soil and plants after application to the site;
- small potatoes - there will be no harm to the soil and crops, but it will sprout on the heap;
- vegetable and fruit residues that have undergone heat treatment - the vitamin composition of such components is very scarce;
- fallen apples or plums affected by diseases;
- spoiled bakery products - when spoiled, bread becomes covered with mold or fungus, later spores strike young shoots;
- insects collected from the beds - their larvae have good survivability, after entering the soil they will actively develop;
- bones (fish and other domestic animals) - they are rotting for a long time, therefore the site will be simply clogged in a few years.
The rules for making compost are simple, they should definitely be considered when organizing a heap or composter for fertilizer. It is worth remembering that the goal is to obtain a nutrient mixture, which contributes to the rapid growth of seedlings and abundant fruiting.