Moniliosis is a disease that affects a huge number of fruit crops, and it is very difficult and long to fight it. But if conduct special preventive and therapeutic measures, you can save your crop from damage. And why apples begin to rot on the tree and how to do the prevention, we will talk further.
Why do fruits rot on the branches of an apple tree?
This problem is faced by a huge number of gardeners. Getting rid of her is not so easy. And if you talk to forget forever, it is generally unrealistic. Biological method of destroying fruit rot today does not exist. Yes, and developments in this direction are not carried out. It's all about endurance dispute, which is quite difficult to destroy.Fruit Rot or Moniliasis
The disease is especially active during hot and humid summers. Namely, those are the seasons in recent years.
The use of reusable spraying fungicides, greatly facilitates the whole process of dealing with moniliosis. But talking about a complete solution to the problem is impossible. The main reason for this situation is considered to be the impossibility of simultaneous treatment with medicinal preparations of all nearby trees and plants.. Plus, the development of a dispute can occur even in the microcracks of the fruit or tree bark. A variety of other types of pests can damage them. “Bad assistants” in this issue can be wasps, scab, powdery mildew, and leafworms that are capable of creating characteristic damage for the activation of moniliosis. And after a couple of days, the tree is already amazed. It remains only to wait for the active signs and symptoms of fruit rot.
If you do not pick up every single infected fruit and do not burn them, the situation will repeat again next year.. But the number of infected apples will be much more. In late autumn, rotten fruit and infected leaves should also be destroyed.
After carrying out preventive work to combat fruit rot and spraying trees with special compounds, you can be sure about your future harvest.
Causes of fruit rot
A variety of species of fungi of the genus Monilia are capable of getting to the surface of pome and stone trees, including ornamental plants, to cause the appearance of the disease. It called moniliosis and damages fruits, shoots and leaves, actively spreading not only on the source, but throughout the garden.Spore fungus spores under the microscope
In early spring, when the weather is notable for its particular dampness, spores of the causative agent of fruit rot, fall onto the inflorescence pistil.. Actively gaining strength, the fungus moves deep into the plant, contributing to the withering of the inflorescences and leaves, as well as the drying of the shoots. The affected parts of the tree are kinda burned by fire. This phenomenon is called monilial burn, which is considered the spring form of the disease.
The fungus can safely overwinter in the form of a mycelium in infected parts of the tree and in mummified apples and pears.
Signs of moniliasis
Monilioz apple characterized by an incubation period. From the moment of infection to the formation of the first signs of fruit rot, it can take about five days. While sporulation occurs a little later, ten days later. It is from this time that the tree begins to hurt.Black fruit or monilial rot
The main signs of fruit rot in the trees are as follows:
- at the beginning, the first are formed worms;
- apple flesh made soft and brown;
- fruit rot begins with a small brown speck;
- this a speck gradually spreads over the surface of the appleuntil it fills most of the apple;
- on rotting surface gray specks appearwhich are considered the site of conidia;
- apple over time starts to turn black right on the tree, further fall, it is from this moment that infection begins near the located fruits;
- with the amount of ripening fruit the number of infected apples increases;
- if you do not remove the infected fruit in time, the disease will go over through the stalk to other fruits;
- this mushroom will be able to overwinter, and in the spring to continue to infect a tree with a new force;
- young the bond will fade, and the twigs spoil.
What to do if apples are rotting right on the tree, how to deal with rot?
Thanks to competent agrotechnical measures, it is not always possible to avoid the spread of the disease. therefore most often the use of fungicides is mandatory.
In early spring Gardeners recommend treating all trees with copper-containing agents (for example, 3% Bordeaux liquid) or Horus (according to the instructions).Treating trees Bordeaux liquid
Already before flowering it is necessary to process the trees again. Here are just Bordeaux liquids already 1%. And if you saw at least one of the cist, manipulations should be repeated again.
In the fall, in September or October, when the apple harvest is fully harvested, the sprinkling of the trees should be repeated.. But already with a solution of copper sulphate with the calculation of 0.1 kg of the drug per 10 liters of water. Moreover, each tree must be carefully treated with at least three liters of therapeutic solution. Only in this way will you be able to destroy the remnants of the spores that affect the roots
Much to my regret Today there are no varieties of apple trees that would be resistant to moniliosis. Practice shows that Slavyanka, Pepin saffron and Parmen winter gold are the least affected. And if for several years you can not get rid of this disease, which struck your apple trees, it is better to give preference to these varieties.
Prevention of this disease in spring and autumn: spraying and fertilizer
The most effective method of dealing with moniliasis is the prevention of the disease, which is recommended to be produced in the fall. Do not leave a single infected leaf or fruit on the ground. As with the arrival of spring, the remaining disputes become more active and will begin their destructive influence again. To completely destroy the infected items you need to burn everything.Fruit rot spreads even during apple storage
With the arrival of the spring season, it is recommended to prune dry branches.whitewashed stem and skeletal branches. This will destroy disputes that could spend the winter on the bark. The holes of the trees should be carefully digged up and add a little fertilizer to the soil, for example, phosphate or potash mixtures. And since the formation of the first ovary, it is better to treat all bone trees without fungus. These manipulations are recommended three times per season. Moreover, the last spraying advised to do a couple of weeks before picking the fruit.
Avoid overmoistening the ground near trees. Since this environment is ideal for the further development of the disease. Plus excess moisture can cause cracks in the bark. And through these vulnerable parts of the pores can freely fall into the tree.
Constant observance of such simple preventive measures will help protect the tree from further infection and preserve the crop.
If your apple trees are hit by fruit rot, it is important not to miss the moment and take measures in time to save your plantings. Only a constant and timely fight against the disease can guarantee the safety of the entire crop in the future. Therefore, you strength and patience, gardeners and lovers.