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Description of bush steppe varieties of cherries

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Cherry steppe is a hybrid that was obtained as a result of the crossing of shrub and garden cherries. If you decide to plant this particular type of berry on the plot, first you should get acquainted with the description, namely understand the characteristics of this variety, in what conditions it grows best, what soil is most favorable for it. In addition, it is worth remembering several important features of the care of this plant, but still about everything in order. First of all, it is worth finding out what kind of species it is and what qualities it possesses.

Description of steppe bush cherry

Breeding history

Cherry steppe

The composition of the state international registry this species was introduced in early 2002. This type of cherry belongs to successful hybrids between cherries and ordinary cherries.

The originator of this species is the YuUNIIPOK - South Ural Research Institute for Vegetable and Potato.

The authors-scientists who worked on the breeding of this species are Anastasia Efimovna Pankratova, Kabir Kadirovich Mullayanov, Vladimir Ilyich Putiagin, IG Zamyatin

Regions of growth

This bush type of cherry is widely distributed in all regions of Russia and CIS countries. Steppe cherry grows in areas:

  • In the Ural region;
  • In the Caucasus;
  • In the Kuban;
  • In the Volga region;
  • In the Nizhny Novgorod region;
  • In the Rostov region;
  • In the Voronezh region;
  • In the Yaroslavl region.
Also often this type of cherry is found in Asia Minor and Central Europe.

Appearance Description

Characteristics of the tree

Steppe cherry trees have the following characteristics:

  1. Varieties of this type have slender trees, no crowns connection;
  2. Tree height ranges from 2.6 to 3.2 meters;
  3. Thumb size equal to about 20-45 centimeters;
  4. Crohn strong and dense. Crown shape of cylindrical and long type;
  5. On crowns available a large number of leaves;
  6. Shoots have oval, slightly rounded shapes, they may have a small amount of fluffs;
Tree Steppe cherry
  1. Coloring shoots brown-gray with silver color;
  2. The length of the shoots can reach up to 30-45 cm;
  3. Chechevichki have medium size, settle down in a small amount;
  4. Kidney is bent, quite long, has medium size. The touch is smooth, smooth;
  5. Foliage the trees have a dark saturated green tint;
  6. Leaf shape roundedslightly narrowed, oblong, has a slight bend upwards;
  7. The size The length can be up to 8 cm on average, and the width to 4 cm.

Fruit quality

Steppe cherry berry has a number of characteristics:

  • Berry Shape oval with slightly rounded edges;
  • A lot of ripe fruits ranges from 4.2 grams to 5 grams;
  • Coloring ripe fruit maroon, inside the structure of the pulp has a burgundy shade with the juice of bright red flowers;
Cherry fruit Steppe
  • Skin of cherries brilliant rather dense, but soft;
  • Peduncle has a retracted shape with a length of about 4 cm;
  • Stem shape straight, kosostavlennaya with a thin structure.
Many steppe cherry gardeners are called dessert varieties, but despite this, they belong to universal types. They are used to prepare various mousses, jams, jams, compotes, and concentrated juices. In addition, decoctions of the berries are often used in gastroenterology and in a feverish state. Due to the high content of cobalt, nickel, copper, iron improves blood formation and overall well-being.

Inside the fruit has a round bone with cream color. Size of bone thickness is about 0.4 cm. Bone length may be about 0.6 cm, width - 0.5 cm.

Stone easily moves away from the pulp of the berry, has a smooth surface, so when used does not cause cuts and damage in the mouth area. The average bone weight is about 0.17-0.20 grams.

Pollination

Varieties of steppe type cherries are considered self-bearing. They have partial self-pollination. therefore when planting steppe type cherry varieties, you can avoid planting pollinators nearby, it will quietly grow and produce crops without pollinators.

Bloom

Steppe cherry in bloom

Duration of flowering is average, rather stretched in time. Blossoming is usually observed on May 20-31. During this period flowers appear on the trees, which have the following characteristics:

  • The flowers have a small size, they are located on a short pedicle;
  • In one inflorescence may be about 5-6 flowers;
  • All petals are spacious, at a decent distance from each other;
  • The form of petals is oval with a wide forked upper part;
  • The top of the cup is widened with a bell-shaped form, has a weak serration;
  • The corolla is designed as an oval-saucer-shaped;
  • Stamens are located above the stigma of the pistil, their number can reach up to 26 pieces.

Yield

Steppe type cherry has a stable yield level. Trees produce high yields every year.

Steppe cherry annually gives high yield

The fruits have late ripening. The full ripening of the berry occurs around the beginning of August.. Berries ripen at the same time. With elevated rainfall, the berry can crack.

Full fruiting begins at 4-5 years of life after planting seedlings. One tree can bear fruit well for 35 years..

It is worth noting that an average of 8 to 11 kilograms of ripe berries can be harvested from one plant. From one hectare you can collect almost 10-12 tons of berries.

Frost resistance

Steppe-type cherry trees tolerate strong frosts. Plants can safely tolerate frosts down to -48 degrees Celsius.

In winter, fruit-bearing buds can withstand medium frosts, almost as much as trees to -45-48 degrees Celsius. Inflorescences and buds have frost resistance slightly above average.

But as for the radical system, its frost resistance is estimated on a three-point scale. In addition, after freezing, the roots quickly restore their structure.

Advantages and disadvantages of steppe cherries

The advantages of steppe cherry are the following qualities:

  1. High yield. From one tree you can collect almost 12 kilograms of ripe berries;
  2. Drought tolerance and frosts;
  3. Annual fruiting;
  4. Long life trees, almost 35 years;
  5. Big berry same size;
  6. High resistance to diseases;
  7. Breeding can occur in various ways;
  8. Ripe fruit possess excellent taste. In addition, they have a high level of useful components that are useful for the full operation of the digestive system, and also they improve the condition of the human blood;
Steppe berries berries are widely used in cooking
  1. Ripe berry can be used for cooking. juices, jams, jams, compotes, jam and other winter preparations.

However, there are negative qualities:

  • Late maturationat the beginning of the last month of summer;
Unripe Steppe Cherry
  • Fruiting occurs only in 2-4 years after planting seedlings;
  • The soft structure of ripe fruit often damaged by precipitation and in transit.

Features of planting and care

For a start, it is worth highlighting the main breeding methods of steppe cherry:

  1. With the help of cuttings;
  2. Due to shoots;
  3. Bones;
  4. With the help of vaccinations.
Grafting cherry over the bark

In early June, you need to prepare shoots. It is important that they are with a reddish tinge, with a slight hardening at the base.

The length of the prepared shoots should be more than 30 cm. Circumcision should be done in the evening or early in the morning. The weather should be cool. After the stems are cut, they must be placed in water.. In order to speed up the process of the emergence of the root system, it is desirable to use special chemical growth regulators.

Heteroauxin may be used as a growth regulator.. 100 ml of this product is diluted with water and ethyl alcohol. Then you need to tie the cuttings and lower in 1 liter of this solution. Keep the cuttings in this mixture for 18 hours.

The landing process has certain nuances that should be strictly followed:

  • Follows in advance dig the soil, remove all weeds and unwanted plants, form the beds;
  • All notches should fill with peat and sandThe size of the layer should be about 10 cm;
  • Further river sand is poured from aboveall loosened, leveled and tamped;
  • Thereafter the land is plentiful and fed with superphosphate;
  • Cuttings should be planted in an upright position., the distance between the trees should be at least 7 cm;
  • Should be planted no more than 3 cm deep;
  • After that all seedlings covered with a plastic bag;
  • In the next period is ensure good watering.

Watering and fertilizer - the key to a good harvest

During intensive growth, appropriate watering should be ensured. It is carried out 2-3 times. For each watering for one tree will need about 3-5 buckets. The first watering is done immediately after flowering, additional fertilizing is added, the second is done immediately after the fruit ovary, and the third during the ripening of the berries. Before flowering organic and mineral fertilizers are applied, then they are introduced after flowering and at the moment of fruit ovary.

Varieties of varieties: Ashinsky, Bolotovskaya and others

In order that the choice does not cause difficulties all the same it is worth knowing which varieties belong to the steppe cherry. Below we consider the most popular varieties:

  • Generous. It has a high yield, up to 11 kilograms can be removed from one tree. The flowering period from May 18-25. Fruiting occurs with 3-4 years of life after disembarkation. It has high drought resistance and frost resistance. 32 years life span;
  • Bolotovskaya. High-yielding late variety. Fruiting begins with 2-3 years of life after disembarkation. Life span up to 30 years;
  • Ashinskaya. High-yielding late variety. Fruiting begins in early August. Fruiting begins with 4-5 years of life after disembarkation. The term of life is 30-32 years;
  • Maksimovskaya. Late fruiting high-yielding variety. Fruit ripening begins in early August. Young trees begin to bear fruit only 3-4 years after they are planted. The average lifespan of trees is about 30-35 years.

Diseases and pests

Varieties of steppe type have increased resistance to the effects of various diseases and pests. Trees are almost not susceptible to fungal types of disease - coccomycosis. As well as other types of fungal infections in steppe type cherries were not observed.

In addition, damage by insects, pests and other diseases of the steppe cherry varieties, as well as the felt ones, has not been identified.

Steppe cherry has good qualities for which many gardeners and gardeners appreciate. It has good yield, frost-resistant and practically not susceptible to diseases.. And her crops always delight every year and in large quantities. But still, to get the desired result, the varieties of this plant must be cared for - water, fertilize, carry out the autumn and spring digging of the soil around the trunk. This is the only way to grow a cherry, the crops of which will delight every year.

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