"White dog rose, wild dog rose more beautiful than garden roses", - is sung in the famous theme from the rock opera "Juno and Avos". Poet Andrei Voznesensky and composer Alexei Rybnikov romanticized this unique plant, making it an object of art.
But few theatergoers know that otherwise the white dog rose is called “black” because of the color of the fruit. Unlike other types of wild rose, this fruit is not red, but black. About all the secrets of black and white wild rose - in the material below.
Botanical description and origin of the species
The scientific Latin name for black rosehip is Rosa spinosissima. In the special literature, it is also called the Rose of the Tonus, Rose of the Bed-Cultivar, Rosehip is Thorny. This plant of the Rosaceae family is found in the wild-growing form on the territory of Central Europe and Asia.
There are two types of black rose hips:
- Rosa spinosissima altaica;
- Rosa spinosissima var. spinosissima.
The first subspecies is common in Siberia and China. The second is in Europe and Southwest Asia. The following common characteristics are characteristic of both subspecies of the black dog rose:
|The form||Spreading shrub up to 2 meters. The shoots are arcuate, heavily studded. The leaves are complex, pinnate, on long prickly petioles. The color of the leaf plates is dark green, in the fall - purple.|
|Flowers||Single, with a diameter of 2 to 6 cm. The color of the petals is often white, but the subspecies spinosissima may have a yellowish color. Flowering - in May-June, for 2 weeks.|
|Fruit||Spherical hypanthias of black color, with a diameter of 10-14 mm, inside of which seeds-nuts are collected. The inner wall is covered with stiff hairs. Ripen at the end of summer, keep on the plant until winter.|
Black rosehip - the ancestor of one of the oldest varieties of cultivated roses, Scottish. In the middle zone of Russia, the garden form of the briar thorn is found - with large cream semi-double flowers.
The chemical composition of the blackest fruits
Black rosehip - a plant that can be used not only for registration of the site and romantic dates. Its fruits are no less useful than the usual red. The chemical composition varies slightly depending on the type of wild rose and growing conditions. Mean values look like this:
|Indicator||% dry weight|
The calorie content of fresh fruits is 109 kcal per 100 g. Of these, 7 kcal are proteins, 7 are fats and 95 are carbohydrates.
The calorie content of dry fruits is higher - 284 kcal. Of these, proteins account for 18 kcal, fats - 16, carbohydrates - 250.
The chemical composition of immature fruits is somewhat different from the composition of fully matured. For example, they contain 2.75% starch. As it matures, starch is converted to sugar. Of sugars in black rosehip contains glucose, fructose and sucrose.
Seeds are rich in fatty acids. Their content is 92% of the total seed mass. Most accounts for oleic acid. Rose hip also contains linoleic, linolenic and caproic acids.
Vitamin composition per 100 g of fruit is as follows:
- Vitamin C - 470 mg;
- vitamin E - 1.7 mg;
- vitamin b1 - 0.05 mg;
- vitamin b2 - 0.033 mg;
- Vitamin P - 0.6 mg.
Rosehip is rich in folic acid, vitamin K and minerals: iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus, manganese and copper.
The above chemical composition of the fruit indicates the beneficial properties of this plant.
|Vitamin C||· Strengthens the vascular wall;|
· Participates in the synthesis of hormones;
· Promotes tissue regeneration;
· Strengthens the immune system;
· Helps flush toxins.
|Vitamin B1||· Improves memory;|
· Participates in the conduction of nerve impulses;
· Participates in the regeneration of nervous tissue.
|Vitamin B2||· Participates in the formation of erythrocytes and antibodies;|
· Participates in the regeneration of the skin;
· Helps to restore nails and hair.
|Folic acid||· Participates in DNA replication;|
· Ensures the normal functioning of the reproductive system.
|Vitamin P||· Prevents capillary fragility;|
· Improves the functioning of the vascular system.
|Vitamin K||· Provides blood clotting;|
· Necessary for normal calcium absorption.
|Vitamin E||· Has an immunostimulating effect;|
· Improves the reproductive system;
· Participates in cellular respiration.
Fruits of the black rosehip contain many anthocyanins - substances necessary for the prevention of cancer.
Medicinal properties and contraindications of large berries
In folk medicine, all parts of the black dog rose are used: fruits, roots, flowers, seeds. This plant will help in the treatment of the following diseases:
- acute respiratory infections;
- rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sore throat;
- bronchitis, tracheitis, tracheobronchitis;
- conjunctivitis and blepharitis;
- uterine, hemorrhoidal and other bleeding;
- renal infections and urolithiasis;
- diseases of the biliary tract;
- reduced acidity of the stomach;
- skin diseases.
Seed oil is used to treat bedsores, trophic ulcers for varicose veins, for healing of postoperative wounds.
There are some contraindications to the use of black rose hips:
- gastritis with high acidity;
- peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
- heart failure.
Be careful to use the hips if you are sensitive to tooth enamel and in case of individual intolerance.
Recipes for medicines based on a round black rosehip
From the round black wild rose at home prepare medicinal decoctions, infusions, syrups. In the process of cooking using glass, porcelain or enamelware. Thermos must be with a glass flask.
Infusion of fresh fruit
Wash the fruits and crush them with a pestle so as not to damage the seeds. For 1 part of raw material take 6 parts of boiling water. Stew in a water bath for 10 minutes, remove from heat, cover and wrap tightly for 3 hours. The resulting infusion is good to filter, add honey or sugar.
Infusion of dry fruits
Fruits take 40 pieces, put in a thermos and pour 1 liter of boiling water. Insist day, then strain, add honey or sugar to taste.
Take 1.5 kg of fresh fruit, wash and place in an enamel container. Pour raw materials with 2 liters of boiling water, boil on low heat for 20 minutes. Cool, strain and let stand for several hours, then strain again. Take 1.3 kg of sugar, pour into the broth and cook with stirring for about half an hour.
Pour into glass bottles, sterilize for 10 minutes, cork tightly and store in a cool, dark place. Use by adding to hot tea instead of sugar.Dried black rosehip with honey
For 1 cup of water, take 1 kg of granulated sugar and boil a thick syrup. Pour 100 grams of fresh petals with them, bring to a boil, remove from heat and leave for 12 hours. Then boil again and boil for 20 minutes, removing the foam. Add 2 tbsp. spoon lemon juice, pour into glass bottles and tightly corked. Add to tea for colds.
Infusion of petals
A quarter cup of dry petals pour a glass of boiling water. Cover the dishes with a lid and wrap for 15 minutes. Drink half a glass before a meal as a sedative or use for washing eyes with conjunctivitis.
Black Rose Hip Decoction
2 tbsp. spoon dry raw materials pour 2 cups boiling water and put on slow fire. Boil for 15 minutes, then insist 2 hours and strain. Take a quarter of a glass for kidney disease 3 times a day before meals.
20 g of dry raw material pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, put on fire and boil for 2 hours. Cool to a warm state, moisten cloth folded in several layers in broth. Put a compress at night for gout and muscle cramps.
Rosehip prickly with white flowers and black fruits is an invaluable combination of beauty and good. Having planted this shrub on your plot, you can not only admire the spring with its delicate romantic flowering, but also provide your family with a vitamin-mineral complex for the whole year.
Now you know which dog rose is the most useful and you can distinguish ordinary fruit from black ones. And finally, a small video on the topic: