Pruning trees is the key to success and a must-have procedure that every experienced gardener knows about. Any fruit tree requires constant and careful care. Only in this case it will give a rich harvest.
Why prune fruit trees?
Fruit trees such as apple, pear and stone fruit need pruning. They are very demanding for pruning. Why prune fruit trees?
Pruning gardeners solve several problems at once:
- Growth and fruiting.
- Reducing the size of the crown.
- The phytosanitary task is the creation of adverse conditions for pests and diseases.
If little light enters the crown, the branches inside the crown do not bear fruit and die over time. Fruits are formed only on those branches of the tree where the light falls.
AND if pruning is rare or not done at all, then the fruits will be located on hard-to-reach branches, located, as a rule, high.
Thanks to the trimming procedure the crown of the tree is formed correctly. Which leads to the growth of side branches and allows you to get more fruits on the available branches.Thanks to the trimming procedure, the crown of a tree is formed correctly, resulting in a rich harvest
When and what trees in the garden can be pruned
Pruning fruit trees in a particular season depends on the following factors:
- What goal does the grower want to achieve with this procedure?
- in what climatic conditions is the garden;
- from the kind of tree.
At what time of the year is it better to cut: spring, summer, winter or autumn?
In the central and northern regions of Russia not recommended for autumn pruning, because of the severe frosts, the wounds in the trees will not have time to heal.
This also happens because the movement of sap in the tree slows down, as it goes into a state of rest. As a result, the tree can get sick and die.
Besides it's important to start pruning old treessince the buds swell on them faster than on the young, pruning is recommended to be done strictly before the time when the kidneys swell.
Pruning fruit trees in spring:
In the southern regions of the country, pruning can be done in winter.. This is due to the fact that in the south the frosts are not as strong as in the north.
Winter pruning, above all, is carried out in order to rejuvenate old trees and create the right crown for young seedlings.
Also Winter pruning is often done to reduce the fruiting of young trees.. It is believed that the tree, which gives rich harvests for 2-3 years in a row, should be allowed to rest.
In addition, the thin saplings of a young tree may break due to high yield. Therefore, it is important in the winter to cut off extra branches. In winter, gardeners prune first pome fruits, and then stone fruits.
Some gardeners believe that summer is the best time for pruning.. But in this case we are talking about trees from 3 years and older. They argue that pruning in the summer months leads to rapid growth of new shoots.
In addition, if you pruning during fruit filling, the quality of the fruit improves markedly.
Another advantage of the summer pruning is the juice extracted by the tree. It covers the wound, which leads to rapid healing, and also acts as a defense against pests.
Most experienced gardeners believe that pruning is best done when the tree is resting. Therefore, prefer early spring.Summer pruning is best done for trees that are 3 years old and older
At what age should fruit trees be pruned
This procedure can begin to do. annual shoots for crown formation.
If the tree has already reached 10-15 years of ageit is considered old. Such a tree reduces the number of increments and yield. He needs a rejuvenating pruning.
To do this, cut the branches for 3-7-year-old wood. Thus, reduce the crown. But by next year, the young shoots will thicken it. It is important to ensure that the number of cuts on one side of a branch does not exceed three.
What plants to do, and how - no
The pruning procedure is required for almost all fruit trees. So how exactly it leads to an increase in yield, allows you to accelerate the growth of the tree, and also protects its many pests and diseases.
It is recommended to start pruning in early spring with pome fruit trees - apple and pear. Since these trees are frost resistant.
Cut cherry, plum, apricot, cherry, cherry plum can only be when the leaves appeared on the trees. If this is done while the tree is resting, pruning can cause trees to become infected with fungi and diseases.
In the summer, you can remove dried branches, also shorten new shoots and remove the branches interfering with the crown.
Features of the procedure
Pruning trees is important to do carefully and follow the basic rules so as not to harm.
First of all, it is necessary to determine the appropriate season of pruning. It will depend on the type and age of fruit trees, as well as on the location of the garden and climate features.
Preparation of garden tools
A large role as a result of pruning will be played by the presence of all the tools necessary for carrying out this procedure.
In order to avoid increasing the diameter of the damaged tree space Use only sharp tools for cutting..For cutting need sharp stainless tools: handsaw, pruner
It is recommended to have on hand the following items and tools:
- garden hacksaw;
- air pruner - pruner on a long rod, for cutting branches at the top;
- garden var or paint on linseed - the means necessary to handle the place of cutting.
Do not cut with a rusty tool.. Otherwise, the tree can get sick and perish as a result.
Scheme and technology
Before you begin trimming itself, it is necessary to determine why it is necessary and draw up a plan of action.
Below are the main goals that gardeners achieve using this procedure:
- form the correct tree crown;
- strengthen thin young shoots;
- remove intersecting branches, discharge the crown to penetrate sunlight into it;
- remove diseased branches, giving the opportunity to grow healthy;
- increase in the number of fruit bearing branches;
- prepare the tree for the winter period.
Once the goal is determined, it is important to learn the trimming techniques. Several techniques are known, among which are the most popular three:
- Kidney cut. This technique helps to set the correct direction of growth of the branch. It is necessary to find a branch with a good gain. Cutting plastic secateurs should be turned to the left part of the branch. The cut is made at a small angle of 5 mm. in front of the kidney. The new branch will grow in the direction where the kidney is looking.
- Cut into a ring. This technique is used when it is necessary to remove a full branch, which grows inside the crown, interferes with other branches and creates density. The scheme is as follows: in the place where the branches are connected, it is necessary to cut exactly along the outer ring.
- Cut to the side branch. This technique allows you to change the direction of growth from one shoot to another. Invalid branches are cut, and the side take on the function of the main branches.
Good care after
If the cut diameter is more than 1 cm, the wound should be treated without fail. To do this, you need to buy or prepare your own garden pitch and treat them to a wound in a tree.
Young fruit trees should be pruned only to form the correct crown. Otherwise, pruning may lead to deterioration of the fruiting properties.
People who take care of their trees and prune correctly and on time., always get thanks in the form of a good harvest.
If a person first decided to do this procedureIt is very important to follow the recommendations of knowledgeable gardeners, since this process seems simple at first glance.
But in fact, carelessness and ignorance can lead to the death of the plant.